Frases de Georg Simmel

Georg Simmel Foto
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Georg Simmel

Fecha de nacimiento: 1. Marzo 1858
Fecha de muerte: 26. Septiembre 1918
Otros nombres: George Simmel, جورج سيمل

Georg Simmel fue un filósofo y sociólogo alemán. Simmel formó parte de la primera generación de sociólogos alemanes: su enfoque neo-kantiano sentó las bases del antipositivismo sociológico, a través de su pregunta "¿Qué es la sociedad?" en una alusión directa a la pregunta de Kant "¿Qué es la naturaleza?", [1] y la presentación de análisis pioneros sobre la individualidad y fragmentación social. Para Simmel, la cultura se refería a "la cultivación de los individuos a través de la acción de las formas externas que han sido objetivadas en el curso de la historia". [1] Simmel analiza los fenómenos sociales y culturales en términos de "formas" y "contenido" con una relación transitoria; desde el contenido, y viceversa, en función del contexto. En este sentido, fue un precursor del estilo estructuralista de razonamiento en las ciencias sociales. Con sus trabajos sobre las metrópolis, Simmel se convirtió en precursor de la sociología urbana, el interaccionismo simbólico y análisis de redes sociales. [2] [3]

Conocedor de Max Weber, Simmel escribió sobre el tema de carácter personal de una manera que recuerda el "tipo ideal" sociológico. Rechazó ampliamente los estándares académicos, sin embargo, cubrió filosóficamente temas como la emoción y el amor romántico. Tanto Simmel y la teoría antipositivista de Weber conformarían a la teoría crítica ecléctica de la Escuela de Frankfurt. [4] Los trabajos más conocidos de la obra Simmel son Los Problemas de la Filosofía de la Historia , La Filosofía del Dinero, La Metrópolis y Mental Vida , Soziologie , y cuestiones fundamentales de la Sociología . También escribió extensamente sobre la filosofía de Schopenhauer y Nietzsche, así como en el arte, especialmente su libro Rembrandt: Un ensayo en la filosofía del arte .



Photo: Unknown author / Public domain

„Money expresses all qualitative differences of things in terms of "how much?"“

—  Georg Simmel

Money, with all its colorlessness and indifference, becomes the common denominator of all values; irreparably it hollows out the core of things, their individuality, their specific value, and their incomparability. All things float with equal specific gravity in the constantly moving stream of money. All things lie on the same level and differ from one another only in the size of the area which they cover.
The Metropolis and Mental Life (1903)

„Cities are, first of all, seats of the highest economic division of labor. They produce thereby such extreme phenomena as in Paris the remunerative occupation of the quatorzième.“

—  Georg Simmel

They are persons who identify themselves by signs on their residences and who are ready at the dinner hour in correct attire, so that they can be quickly called upon if a dinner party should consist of thirteen persons. In the measure of its expansion, the city offers more and more the decisive conditions of the division of labor. It offers a circle which through its size can absorb a highly diverse variety of services.
Fuente: The Metropolis and Modern Life (1903), p. 420

„The deepest problems of modern life derive from the claim of the individual to preserve the autonomy and individuality of his existence in the face of overwhelming social forces, of historical heritage, of external culture, and of the technique of life. The fight with nature which primitive man has to wage for his bodily existence attains in this modern form its latest transformation.“

—  Georg Simmel

Original: (de) Die tiefsten Probleme des modernen Lebens quellen aus dem Anspruch des Individuums, die Selbständigkeit und Eigenart seines Daseins gegen die Übermächte der Gesellschaft, des geschichtlich Ererbten, der äußerlichen Kultur und Technik des Lebens zu bewahren - die letzterreichte Umgestaltung des Kampfes mit der Natur, den der primitive Mensch um seine leibliche Existenz zu führen hat.
Fuente: The Metropolis and Mental Life (1903), p. 409

„The eighteenth century called upon man to free himself of all the historical bonds in the state and in religion, in morals and in economics. Man’s nature, originally good and common to all, should develop unhampered. In addition to more liberty, the nineteenth century demanded the functional specialization of man and his work; this specialization makes one individual incomparable to another, and each of them indispensable to the highest possible extent. However, this specialization makes each man the more directly dependent upon the supplementary activities of all others. Nietzsche sees the full development of the individual conditioned by the most ruthless struggle of individuals; socialism believes in the suppression of all competition for the same reason. Be that as it may, in all these positions the same basic motive is at work: the person resists to being leveled down and worn out by a social technological mechanism.“

—  Georg Simmel

Original: (de) Mag das 18.Jahrhundert zur Befreiung von allen historisch erwachsenen Bindungen in Staat und Religion, in Moral und Wirtschaft aufrufen, damit die ursprünglich gute Natur, die in allen Menschen die gleiche ist, sich ungehemmt entwickele; mag das 19.Jahrhundert neben der bloßen Freiheit die arbeitsteilige Besonderheit des Menschen und seiner Leistung fordern, die den Einzelnen unvergleichlich und möglichst unentbehrlich macht, ihn dadurch aber um so enger auf die Ergänzung durch alle anderen anweist; mag Nietzsche in dem rücksichtslosesten Kampf der Einzelnen oder der Sozialismus gerade in dem Niederhalten aller Konkurrenz die Bedingung für die volle Entwicklung der Individuen sehen - in alledem wirkt das gleiche Grundmotiv: der Widerstand des Subjekts, in einem gesellschaftlich-technischen Mechanismus nivelliert und verbraucht zu werden.
Fuente: The Metropolis and Mental Life (1903), p. 409

„An inquiry into the inner meaning of specifically modern life and its products, into the soul of the cultural body, so to speak, must seek to solve the equation which structures like the metropolis set up between the individual and the super-individual contents of life. Such an inquiry must answer the question of how the personality accommodates itself in the adjustments to external forces.“

—  Georg Simmel

Original: (de) Wo die Produkte des spezifisch modernen Lebens nach ihrer Innerlichkeit gefragt werden, sozusagen der Körper der Kultur nach seiner Seele - wie mir dies heut gegenüber unseren Großstädten obliegt - wird die Antwort der Gleichung nachforschen müssen, die solche Gebilde zwischen den individuellen und den überindividuellen Inhalten des Lebens stiften, den Anpassungen der Persönlichkeit, durch die sie sich mit den ihr äußeren Mächten abfindet.
Fuente: The Metropolis and Mental Life (1903), p. 409

„Man is something that is to be overcome“

—  Georg Simmel

Fuente: The View of Life (1918), p. 5-6 part of the first essay "Life as Transcendence"
Contexto: Man is something that is to be overcome.
Logically considered, this, too, presents a contradiction: he who overcomes himself is admittedly the victor, but he is also the defeated. The ego succumbs to itself, when it wins; it achieves victory, when it suffers defeat. Yet the contradiction only arises when the two aspects of this unity are hardened into opposed, mutually exclusive conceptions. It is precisely the fully unified process of the moral life which overcomes and surpasses every lower state by achieving a higher one, and again transcends this latter state through one still higher. That man overcomes himself means that he reaches out beyond the bounds that the moment sets for him. There must be something at hand to be overcome, but it is only there in order to be overcome. Thus even as an ethical agent, man is the limited being that has no limit.

„That man overcomes himself means that he reaches out beyond the bounds that the moment sets for him. There must be something at hand to be overcome, but it is only there in order to be overcome. Thus even as an ethical agent, man is the limited being that has no limit.“

—  Georg Simmel

Fuente: The View of Life (1918), p. 5-6 part of the first essay "Life as Transcendence"
Contexto: Man is something that is to be overcome.
Logically considered, this, too, presents a contradiction: he who overcomes himself is admittedly the victor, but he is also the defeated. The ego succumbs to itself, when it wins; it achieves victory, when it suffers defeat. Yet the contradiction only arises when the two aspects of this unity are hardened into opposed, mutually exclusive conceptions. It is precisely the fully unified process of the moral life which overcomes and surpasses every lower state by achieving a higher one, and again transcends this latter state through one still higher. That man overcomes himself means that he reaches out beyond the bounds that the moment sets for him. There must be something at hand to be overcome, but it is only there in order to be overcome. Thus even as an ethical agent, man is the limited being that has no limit.

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