Frases de Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday Foto
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Michael Faraday

Fecha de nacimiento: 22. Septiembre 1791
Fecha de muerte: 25. Agosto 1867

Michael Faraday, FRS , fue un físico y químico británico que estudió el electromagnetismo y la electroquímica. Sus principales descubrimientos incluyen la inducción electromagnética, el diamagnetismo y la electrólisis.

A pesar de la escasa educación formal recibida, Faraday es uno de los científicos más influyentes de la historia. Mediante su estudio del campo magnético alrededor de un conductor por el que circula corriente continua, fijó las bases para el desarrollo del concepto de campo electromagnético. También estableció que el magnetismo podía afectar a los rayos de luz y que había una relación subyacente entre ambos fenómenos.[1]​

Descubrió asimismo el principio de inducción electromagnética, el diamagnetismo, las leyes de la electrólisis e inventó algo que él llamó dispositivos de rotación electromagnética, que fueron los precursores del actual motor eléctrico.

En el campo de la química, Faraday descubrió el benceno, investigó el clatrato de cloro, inventó un antecesor del mechero de Bunsen, el sistema de números de oxidación e introdujo términos como ánodo, cátodo, electrodo e ion. Finalmente, fue el primero en recibir el título de Fullerian Professor of Chemistry en la Royal Institution de Gran Bretaña, que ostentaría hasta su muerte.

Faraday fue un excelente experimentador, que transmitió sus ideas en un lenguaje claro y simple. Sus habilidades matemáticas, sin embargo, no abarcaban más allá de la trigonometría y el álgebra básica. James Clerk Maxwell tomó el trabajo de Faraday y otros y lo resumió en un grupo de ecuaciones que representan las actuales teorías del fenómeno electromagnético. El uso de líneas de fuerza por parte de Faraday llevó a Maxwell a escribir que "demuestran que Faraday ha sido en realidad un gran matemático. Del cual los matemáticos del futuro derivarán valiosos y prolíficos métodos".[2]​

La unidad de capacidad eléctrica en el Sistema Internacional de Unidades , el faradio , se denomina así en su honor.

Albert Einstein tenía colgado en la pared de su estudio un retrato de Faraday junto a los de Isaac Newton y James Clerk Maxwell.[3]​

El físico neozelandés Ernest Rutherford declaró: "Cuando consideramos la extensión y la magnitud de sus descubrimientos y su influencia en el progreso de la ciencia y de la industria, no existen honores que puedan retribuir la memoria de Faraday, uno de los mayores descubridores científicos de todos los tiempos".[4]​

Frases Michael Faraday

„Hasta el final seguiré siendo, simplemente, Michael Faraday.“

—  Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday pronunció esta frase refiriéndose a sus orígenes humildes.

„El hecho fundamental nunca falla; su prueba siempre es verdadera.“

—  Michael Faraday

Como científico, Faraday se ciñó estrictamente a los hechos constatables y, por ende, evitó la amistad estrecha de colegas partidistas y que promovían sus propias hipótesis.

„Sir, un día podrá usted gravarla con impuestos.“

—  Michael Faraday

Respuesta cuando el ministro de Hacienda británico Gladstone le interrogó sobre la utilidad práctica de la energía eléctrica.

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„We learn by such results as these, what is the kind of education that science offers to man. It teaches us to be neglectful of nothing, not to despise the small beginnings — they precede of necessity all great things.“

—  Michael Faraday

Vesicles make clouds; they are trifles light as air, but then they make drops, and drops make showers, rain makes torrents and rivers, and these can alter the face of a country, and even keep the ocean to its proper fulness and use. It teaches a continual comparison of the small and great, and that under differences almost approaching the infinite, for the small as often contains the great in principle, as the great does the small; and thus the mind becomes comprehensive. It teaches to deduce principles carefully, to hold them firmly, or to suspend the judgment, to discover and obey law, and by it to be bold in applying to the greatest what we know of the smallest. It teaches us first by tutors and books, to learn that which is already known to others, and then by the light and methods which belong to science to learn for ourselves and for others; so making a fruitful return to man in the future for that which we have obtained from the men of the past.
Lecture notes of 1858, quoted in The Life and Letters of Faraday (1870) by Bence Jones, Vol. 2, p. 403

„Nature is our kindest friend and best critic in experimental science if we only allow her intimations to fall unbiased on our minds.“

—  Michael Faraday

Letter to John Tyndall (19 April 1851); letter 2411, edited by
Contexto: I have far more confidence in the one man who works mentally and bodily at a matter than in the six who merely talk about it — and I therefore hope and am fully persuaded that you are working. Nature is our kindest friend and best critic in experimental science if we only allow her intimations to fall unbiased on our minds. Nothing is so good as an experiment which, whilst it sets an error right, gives us (as a reward for our humility in being reproved) an absolute advancement in knowledge.

„Bacon in his instruction tells us that the scientific student ought not to be as the ant, who gathers merely, nor as the spider who spins from her own bowels, but rather as the bee who both gathers and produces.“

—  Michael Faraday

Lecture notes of 1858, quoted in The Life and Letters of Faraday (1870) by Bence Jones, Vol. 2, p. 404
Contexto: Bacon in his instruction tells us that the scientific student ought not to be as the ant, who gathers merely, nor as the spider who spins from her own bowels, but rather as the bee who both gathers and produces. All this is true of the teaching afforded by any part of physical science. Electricity is often called wonderful, beautiful; but it is so only in common with the other forces of nature. The beauty of electricity or of any other force is not that the power is mysterious, and unexpected, touching every sense at unawares in turn, but that it is under law, and that the taught intellect can even now govern it largely. The human mind is placed above, and not beneath it, and it is in such a point of view that the mental education afforded by science is rendered super-eminent in dignity, in practical application and utility; for by enabling the mind to apply the natural power through law, it conveys the gifts of God to man.

„It teaches us first by tutors and books, to learn that which is already known to others, and then by the light and methods which belong to science to learn for ourselves and for others; so making a fruitful return to man in the future for that which we have obtained from the men of the past.“

—  Michael Faraday

Lecture notes of 1858, quoted in The Life and Letters of Faraday (1870) by Bence Jones, Vol. 2, p. 403
Contexto: We learn by such results as these, what is the kind of education that science offers to man. It teaches us to be neglectful of nothing, not to despise the small beginnings — they precede of necessity all great things. Vesicles make clouds; they are trifles light as air, but then they make drops, and drops make showers, rain makes torrents and rivers, and these can alter the face of a country, and even keep the ocean to its proper fulness and use. It teaches a continual comparison of the small and great, and that under differences almost approaching the infinite, for the small as often contains the great in principle, as the great does the small; and thus the mind becomes comprehensive. It teaches to deduce principles carefully, to hold them firmly, or to suspend the judgment, to discover and obey law, and by it to be bold in applying to the greatest what we know of the smallest. It teaches us first by tutors and books, to learn that which is already known to others, and then by the light and methods which belong to science to learn for ourselves and for others; so making a fruitful return to man in the future for that which we have obtained from the men of the past.

„Speculations? I have none. I am resting on certainties.“

—  Michael Faraday

When asked about his speculations on life beyond death, as quoted in The Homiletic Review‎ (April 1896), p. 442
Contexto: Speculations? I have none. I am resting on certainties. I know whom I have believed and am persuaded that he is able to keep that which I have committed unto him against that day.

„I am, I hope, very thankful that in the withdrawal of the powers and things of life, the good hope is left with me, which makes the contemplation of death a comfort — not a fear.“

—  Michael Faraday

Letter to Auguste de la Rive (1861), as quoted in The Philosopher's Tree : A Selection of Michael Faraday's Writings (1999) edited by Peter Day, p. 199
Contexto: I am, I hope, very thankful that in the withdrawal of the powers and things of life, the good hope is left with me, which makes the contemplation of death a comfort — not a fear. Such peace is alone the gift of God, and as it is He who gives it, why should we be afraid? His unspeakable gift in His beloved Son is the ground of no doubtful hope, and there is the rest for those who )like you and me) are drawing near the latter end of our terms here below. I do not know, however why I should join you with me in years. I forget your age, but this I know (and feel as well) that next Sabbath day (the 22nd) I shall complete my 70th year. I can hardly think myself so old as I write to you — so much of cheerful spirit, ease and general health is left to me, and if my memory fails, why it causes that I forget troubles as well as pleasure and the end is, I am happy and content.

„Among those points of self-education which take up the form of mental discipline, there is one of great importance, and, moreover, difficult to deal with, because it involves an internal conflict, and equally touches our vanity and our ease. It consists in the tendency to deceive ourselves regarding all we wish for, and the necessity of resistance to these desires.“

—  Michael Faraday

Royal Institution Lecture On Mental Education (6 May 1854), as reprinted in Experimental Researches in Chemistry and Physics, by Michael Faraday, 1859, pp 474-475, emphasis verbatim.
Contexto: Among those points of self-education which take up the form of mental discipline, there is one of great importance, and, moreover, difficult to deal with, because it involves an internal conflict, and equally touches our vanity and our ease. It consists in the tendency to deceive ourselves regarding all we wish for, and the necessity of resistance to these desires. It is impossible for any one who has not been constrained, by the course of his occupation and thoughts, to a habit of continual self-correction, to be aware of the amount of error in relation to judgment arising from this tendency. The force of the temptation which urges us to seek for such evidence and appearances as are in favour of our desires, and to disregard those which oppose them, is wonderfully great. In this respect we are all, more or less, active promoters of error. In place of practising wholesome self-abnegation, we ever make the wish the father to the thought: we receive as friendly that which agrees with, we resist with dislike that which opposes us; whereas the very reverse is required by every dictate of common sense.

„I have far more confidence in the one man who works mentally and bodily at a matter than in the six who merely talk about it“

—  Michael Faraday

and I therefore hope and am fully persuaded that you are working. Nature is our kindest friend and best critic in experimental science if we only allow her intimations to fall unbiased on our minds. Nothing is so good as an experiment which, whilst it sets an error right, gives us (as a reward for our humility in being reproved) an absolute advancement in knowledge.
Letter to John Tyndall (19 April 1851); letter 2411, edited by [Frank A. J. L. James, The correspondence of Michael Faraday, Volume 4, IET, 1999, 0863412513, 281]

„I was at first almost frightened when I saw such mathematical force made to bear upon the subject, and then wondered to see that the subject stood it so well.“

—  Michael Faraday

Letter to James Clerk Maxwell (25 March 1857), commenting on Maxwell's paper titled "On Faraday's Lines of Force"; letter published in The Life of James Clerk Maxwell: With Selections from His Correspondence (1884), edited by Lewis Campbell and William Garnett, p. 200; also in Coming of Age in the Milky Way (2003) by Timothy Ferris, p. 186

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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