Frases de Earl Warren

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Earl Warren

Fecha de nacimiento: 19. Marzo 1891
Fecha de muerte: 9. Julio 1974

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Earl Warren fue un jurista y político estadounidense. Entre 1943 y 1953, fue gobernador de California y candidato a la Vicepresidencia de la República en 1948. Fue el 14°. Presidente de la Corte Suprema de los Estados Unidos, desde el 5 de octubre de 1953 hasta el 23 de junio de 1969 en el período presidencial de Dwight D. Eisenhower. En 1964 fue presidente de la comisión encargada de investigar el asesinato de John Fitzgerald Kennedy, la llamada Comisión Warren.

Es conocido por sus esfuerzos en favor de los campos de concentración para japoneses en los Estados Unidos durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial como también por las decisiones de la corte Warren, que terminó con la segregación en las escuelas y transformó numerosos aspectos de la legislación norteamericana, especialmente en lo que respecta a los derechos de los acusados, terminó con las plegarias en las escuelas públicas, y exigió la adopción de reglas de proporcionalidad electoral del tipo "un hombre, un voto". Hizo de la Corte un centro de poder más equilibrado frente al Congreso y a la Presidencia, especialmente a través de cuatro sentencias en casos paradigmáticos: Brown v. Board of Education , Gideon v. Wainwright , Reynolds v. Sims , y Miranda v. Arizona .

Con todas estas medidas, la corte Warren estaba sentando un precedente, al cambiar la forma de entender e interpretar la Constitución estadounidense. Hasta entonces, la Corte Suprema siempre había considerado que su deber de velar por la Constitución consistía exclusivamente en mantener la sacrosanta separación de poderes, evitando que el poder ejecutivo, principalmente, se excediera en sus funciones. Esta postura, en muchos casos, supuso impedir la aprobación de legislación de corte social, tal y como sucedió durante el New Deal de Franklin Roosevelt, por entender que escapaba de la competencia de la presidencia. Pero, tras el mandato de Warren, la Corte pasó a leer la Constitución y la Carta de Derechos que la acompaña no como un mero reglamento destinado a proteger la separación de poderes y limitar la autoridad federal, sino como la garantía de los derechos y libertades de los ciudadanos estadounidenses. Esta interpretación continúa siendo mayoritaria el día de hoy.

Warren, junto con Jerry Brown, fueron los únicos gobernadores de California elegidos por tres períodos. Antes de desempeñarse como gobernador, fue fiscal de distrito por Alameda County, California, y Procurador general de ese estado.

Junto con el período de John Marshall, el periodo de Warren como Presidente de la Corte de Justicia a menudo es considerado como uno de los momentos de mayor poder de la rama judicial en Estados Unidos.

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Frases Earl Warren

„You sit up there, and you see the whole gamut of human nature.“

—  Earl Warren
Context: You sit up there, and you see the whole gamut of human nature. Even if the case being argued involves only a little fellow and $50, it involves justice. That's what is important. Interview in 1953 after being appointed to the Supreme Court, as quoted in Earl Warren : A Political Biography (1967) by Leo Katcher, p. 315

„These activities are so basically wrong and so menacing to our institutions that every citizen and particularly every public official should oppose them to the limit of their strength.“

—  Earl Warren
Context: I believe the preservation of our civil liberties to be the most fundamental and important of all our governmental problems, because it always has been with us and always will be with us and if we ever permit those liberties to be destroyed, there will be nothing left in our system worthy of preservation. They constitute the soul of democracy. I believe that there is grave danger in this country of losing our civil liberties as they have been lost in other countries. There are things transpiring in this country today that are definitely menacing our future; among which are the activities of Mayor Hague and other little Hagues throughout the country. These activities are so basically wrong and so menacing to our institutions that every citizen and particularly every public official should oppose them to the limit of their strength. Views on civil rights declared in a written statement requested by Robert W. Kenny, read during fund raising luncheon at the Biltmore Hotel, in Los Angeles, in the summer of 1938, quoted in Lawyers Guild Review Vol. 13-14 (1953), p. 47; he mentions Frank Hague, who had declared earlier in the year:

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„Prior to any questioning, the person must be warned that he has a right to remain silent, that any statement he does make may be used as evidence against him, and that he has a right to the presence of an attorney, either retained or appointed.“

—  Earl Warren
Context: Prior to any questioning, the person must be warned that he has a right to remain silent, that any statement he does make may be used as evidence against him, and that he has a right to the presence of an attorney, either retained or appointed. The defendant may waive effectuation of these rights, provided the waiver is made voluntarily, knowingly and intelligently. If, however, he indicates in any manner and at any stage of the process that he wishes to consult with an attorney before speaking there can be no questioning. Likewise, if the individual is alone and indicates in any manner that he does not wish to be interrogated, the police may not question him. The mere fact that he may have answered some questions or volunteered some statements on his own does not deprive him of the right of refrain from answering any further inquiries until he has consulted with an attorney and thereafter consents to be questioned. Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U. S. 436, 445 (1965) - Opinion of the Court

„He must be warned prior to any questioning that he has the right to remain silent, that anything he says can be used against him in a court of law, that he has the right to the presence of an attorney, and that, if he cannot afford an attorney one will be appointed for him prior to any questioning if he so desires.“

—  Earl Warren
Context: To summarize, we hold that, when an individual is taken into custody or otherwise deprived of his freedom by the authorities in any significant way and is subjected to questioning, the privilege against self-incrimination is jeopardized. Procedural safeguards must be employed to protect the privilege, and unless other fully effective means are adopted to notify the person of his right of silence and to assure that the exercise of the right will be scrupulously honored, the following measures are required. He must be warned prior to any questioning that he has the right to remain silent, that anything he says can be used against him in a court of law, that he has the right to the presence of an attorney, and that, if he cannot afford an attorney one will be appointed for him prior to any questioning if he so desires. Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U. S. 436, 478-79 (1965)

„The mere fact that he may have answered some questions or volunteered some statements on his own does not deprive him of the right of refrain from answering any further inquiries until he has consulted with an attorney and thereafter consents to be questioned.“

—  Earl Warren
Context: Prior to any questioning, the person must be warned that he has a right to remain silent, that any statement he does make may be used as evidence against him, and that he has a right to the presence of an attorney, either retained or appointed. The defendant may waive effectuation of these rights, provided the waiver is made voluntarily, knowingly and intelligently. If, however, he indicates in any manner and at any stage of the process that he wishes to consult with an attorney before speaking there can be no questioning. Likewise, if the individual is alone and indicates in any manner that he does not wish to be interrogated, the police may not question him. The mere fact that he may have answered some questions or volunteered some statements on his own does not deprive him of the right of refrain from answering any further inquiries until he has consulted with an attorney and thereafter consents to be questioned. Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U. S. 436, 445 (1965) - Opinion of the Court

„This concept of "national defense" cannot be deemed an end in itself, justifying any exercise of legislative power designed to promote such a goal.“

—  Earl Warren
Context: This concept of "national defense" cannot be deemed an end in itself, justifying any exercise of legislative power designed to promote such a goal. Implicit in the term "national defense" is the notion of defending those values and ideals which set this Nation apart. For almost two centuries, our country has taken singular pride in the democratic ideals enshrined in its Constitution, and the most cherished of those ideals have found expression in the First Amendment. It would indeed be ironic if, in the name of national defense, we would sanction the subversion of one of those liberties — the freedom of association — which make the defense of our nation worthwhile. United States v. Robel (1967) - Findlaw file http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=389&invol=258

„I am unalterably opposed to any species of vigilantes or to any other extra-legal means of a majority exercising its will over a minority“

—  Earl Warren
Context: I am unalterably opposed to any species of vigilantes or to any other extra-legal means of a majority exercising its will over a minority … I believe that if majorities are entitled to have their civil rights protected they should be willing to fight for the same rights to minorities no matter how violently they disagree with their views. Further, I am convinced that this is the only way they can be preserved. I believe that the American concept of civil rights should include not only an observance of our Constitutional Bill of Rights, but also absence of arbitrary action by government in every field. Views on civil rights declared in the summer of 1938, quoted in Justice for All : Earl Warren and the Nation He Made (2006) by Jim Newton, p. 95

„I believe the preservation of our civil liberties to be the most fundamental and important of all our governmental problems, because it always has been with us and always will be with us and if we ever permit those liberties to be destroyed, there will be nothing left in our system worthy of preservation.“

—  Earl Warren
Context: I believe the preservation of our civil liberties to be the most fundamental and important of all our governmental problems, because it always has been with us and always will be with us and if we ever permit those liberties to be destroyed, there will be nothing left in our system worthy of preservation. They constitute the soul of democracy. I believe that there is grave danger in this country of losing our civil liberties as they have been lost in other countries. There are things transpiring in this country today that are definitely menacing our future; among which are the activities of Mayor Hague and other little Hagues throughout the country. These activities are so basically wrong and so menacing to our institutions that every citizen and particularly every public official should oppose them to the limit of their strength. Views on civil rights declared in a written statement requested by Robert W. Kenny, read during fund raising luncheon at the Biltmore Hotel, in Los Angeles, in the summer of 1938, quoted in Lawyers Guild Review Vol. 13-14 (1953), p. 47; he mentions Frank Hague, who had declared earlier in the year:

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„It would indeed be ironic if, in the name of national defense, we would sanction the subversion of one of those liberties — the freedom of association — which make the defense of our nation worthwhile.“

—  Earl Warren
Context: This concept of "national defense" cannot be deemed an end in itself, justifying any exercise of legislative power designed to promote such a goal. Implicit in the term "national defense" is the notion of defending those values and ideals which set this Nation apart. For almost two centuries, our country has taken singular pride in the democratic ideals enshrined in its Constitution, and the most cherished of those ideals have found expression in the First Amendment. It would indeed be ironic if, in the name of national defense, we would sanction the subversion of one of those liberties — the freedom of association — which make the defense of our nation worthwhile. United States v. Robel (1967) - Findlaw file http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=389&invol=258

„The censor's sword pierces deeply into the heart of free expression.“

—  Earl Warren
Dissent in Times Film Corp. v. City of Chicago 365 U.S. 43 (1961)

„We may not know the whole story in our lifetime.“

—  Earl Warren
On the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, quoted in Minute by Minute (1985)

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„The only reason that there has been no sabotage or espionage on the part of Japanese-Americans is that they are waiting for the right moment to strike.“

—  Earl Warren
Testimony on Internment of people of Japanese Ancestry before the House Select Committee Investigating National Defense Migration (Tolan Committee) in 1941; <!-- as quoted in Legacy of the Transatlantic Slave Trade (2008) by the US House Committee on the Judiciary -->of this statement Warren later said, in The Memoirs of Earl Warren (1977):

„To summarize: Americans have one of the greatest legal systems, but not a monopoly of the sense of justice, which is universal; nor have we a permanent copyright on the means of securing justice, for it is the spirit and not the form of law that keeps justice alive.“

—  Earl Warren
In "The Law and the Future," in The public papers of Chief Justice Earl Warren (1959) edited by Henry M. Christman .<!-- ; also in The Fabulous Future : America in 1980 edited by David Sarnoff (1971) -->

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