Frases de Ha-Joon Chang

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Ha-Joon Chang

Fecha de nacimiento: 7. Octubre 1963

Ha-Joon Chang , nacido en Corea del Sur en 1963 es uno de los economistas heterodoxos más destacados del mundo, especializado en la economía del desarrollo. Chang es uno de los economistas más citados en la literatura de la economía del desarrollo, especialmente en artículos y libros que son críticos del neoliberalismo.[1]​[2]​

Instruido en la Universidad de Cambridge, donde actualmente trabaja como profesor, Chang es el autor de varios influyentes libros, entre ellos Retirar la escalera.[3]​[4]​ También ha sido consultor del Banco Mundial y del Banco Europeo de Inversiones así como de Oxfam y varias agencias de Naciones Unidas. Es miembro del Center for Economic and Policy Research de Washington D.C. También es conocido como inspirador de las ideas económicas del expresidente del Ecuador, Rafael Correa.[5]​

Frases Ha-Joon Chang

„Are you still convinced that inflation is incompatible with economic success?“

—  Ha-Joon Chang, libro Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism
Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism (2008), Context: Inflation is bad for growth—this has become one of the most widely accepted economic nostrums of our age. But see how you feel about it after digesting the following piece of information. During the 1960s and the 1970s, Brazil's average inflation rate was 42% a year. Despite this, Brazil was one of the fastest growing economies in the world for those two decades—its per capita income grew at 4.5% a year during this period. In contrast, between 1996 and 2005, during which time Brazil embraced the neo-liberal orthodoxy, especially in relation to macroeconomic policy, its inflation rate averaged a much lower 7.1% a year. But during this period, per capita income in Brazil grew at only 1.3% a year. If you are not entirely persuaded by the Brazilian case—understandable, given that hyperinflation went side by side with low growth in the 1980s and the early 1990s—how about this? During its 'miracle' years, when its economy was growing at 7% a year in per capita terms, Korea had inflation rates close to 20%-17.4% in the 1960s and 19.8% in the 1970s. These were rates higher than those found in several Latin American countries... Are you still convinced that inflation is incompatible with economic success? Ch. 7: 'Mission impossible?; Can financial prudence go too far?', There is inflation and there is inflation, p. 149

„Unlike what neo-liberals say, market and democracy clash at a fundamental level. Democracy runs on the principle of 'one man (one person), one vote'. The market runs on the principle of 'one dollar, one vote'.“

—  Ha-Joon Chang, libro Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism
Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism (2008), Context: Unlike what neo-liberals say, market and democracy clash at a fundamental level. Democracy runs on the principle of 'one man (one person), one vote'. The market runs on the principle of 'one dollar, one vote'. Naturally, the former gives equal weight to each person, regardless of the money she/he has. The latter give greater weight to richer people. Therefore, democratic decisions usually subvert the logic of market. Ch. 8, Democracy and the free market, p. 172

„Health warning: On no account drink only one ingredient – liable to lead to tunnel vision, arrogance and possibly brain death.“

—  Ha-Joon Chang
Economics: The User's Guide (2014), Context: ECONOMICS COCKTAILS. Ingredients: Austrian, Behaviouralist, Classical, Developmentalist, Institutionalist, Keynesian, Marxist, Neoclassical and Schumpeterian. [... ] Health warning: On no account drink only one ingredient – liable to lead to tunnel vision, arrogance and possibly brain death. Ch. 4: "Let a hundred flowers bloom: How to 'do' economics"

„Trade is simply too important for economic development to be left to free trade economists.“

—  Ha-Joon Chang, libro Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism
Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism (2008), Context: The importance of international trade for economic development cannot be overemphasized. But free trade is not the best path to economic development. Trade helps economic development only when the country employs a mixture of protection and open trade, constantly adjusting it according to its changing needs and capabilities. Trade is simply too important for economic development to be left to free trade economists. Ch. 3, More trade, fewer ideologies, p. 83

„Unless we find a solution to the problem of interlocking patents, the patent system may actually impede the very innovation it was designed to encourage.“

—  Ha-Joon Chang, libro Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism
Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism (2008), Context: The days are over when technology can be advanced in laboratories by individual scientists alone. Now you need an army of lawyers to negotiate the hazardous terrain of interlocking patents. Unless we find a solution to the problem of interlocking patents, the patent system may actually impede the very innovation it was designed to encourage. Ch. 6, The tyranny of interlocking patents, p. 128

„If they want to leave poverty behind, they have to defy the market“

—  Ha-Joon Chang, libro Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism
Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism (2008), Context: Markets have a strong tendency to reinforce the status quo. The free market dictates that countries stick to what they are already good at. Stated bluntly, this means that poor countries are supposed to continue with their current engagement in low-productivity activities. But their engagement in those activities is exactly what makes them poor. If they want to leave poverty behind, they have to defy the market and do the more difficult things that bring them higher incomes—there are no two ways about it. Ch. 9, Defying the market, p. 210

„He is over-protected and needs to be exposed to competition, so that he can become a more productive person.“

—  Ha-Joon Chang, libro Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism
Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism (2008), Context: I have a six-year-old son. His name is Jin-Gyu. He lives off me, yet he is quite capable of making a living. I pay for his lodging, food, education and health care. But millions of children of his age already have jobs. Daniel Defoe, in the 18th century, thought that children could earn a living from the age of four. Moreover, working might do Jin-Gyu's character a world of good. Right now he lives in an economic bubble with no sense of the value of money. He has zero appreciation of the efforts his mother and I make on his behalf, subsidizing his idle existence and cocooning him from harsh reality. He is over-protected and needs to be exposed to competition, so that he can become a more productive person. Thinking about it, the more competition he is exposed to and the sooner this is done, the better it will be for his future development. It will whip him into a mentality that is ready for hard work. I should make him quit school and get a job. Perhaps I could move to a country where child labour is still tolerated, if not legal, to give him more choice in employment. Ch. 3: 'My six-year-old son should get a job; Is free trade always the answer?', p. 65

„Rich countries have 'kicked away the ladder' by forcing free-market, free-trade policies on poor countries.“

—  Ha-Joon Chang, libro Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism
Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism (2008), Context: Rich countries have 'kicked away the ladder' by forcing free-market, free-trade policies on poor countries. Already established countries do not want more competitors emerging through the nationalistic policies they themselves successfully used in the past. Ch. 2, Learning the right lessons from history, p. 61

„Not all countries have succeeded through protection and subsidies, but few have done so without them.“

—  Ha-Joon Chang, libro Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism
Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism (2008), Context: Britain and the US are not the homes of free trade; in fact, for a long time they were the most protectionist countries in the world. Not all countries have succeeded through protection and subsidies, but few have done so without them. For developing countries, free trade has a rarely been a matter of choice; it was often an imposition from outside, sometimes even through military power. Most of them did very poorly under free trade; they did much better when they used protection and subsidies. The best-performing economies have been those that opened up their economies selectively and gradually. Neo-liberal free-trade free-market policy claims to sacrifice equity for growth, but in fact it achieves neither; growth has slowed down in the past two and a half decades when markets were freed and borders opened. Prologue, p. 17

„Keynesianism for the rich countries and monetarism for the poor“

—  Ha-Joon Chang, libro Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism
Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism (2008), Context: Gore Vidal, the American writer, once described the American economic system as 'free enterprise for the poor and socialism for the rich'. Macroeconomic policy on the global scale is a bit like that. It is Keynesianism for the rich countries and monetarism for the poor. Ch. 7, Keynesianism for the rich, monetarism for the poor, p. 158

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„The foundation of economic development is the acquisition of more productive knowledge.“

—  Ha-Joon Chang, libro Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism
Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism (2008), Ch. 6, Harsh rules and developing countries, p. 142

„We are not smart enough to leave things to the market.“

—  Ha-Joon Chang, libro 23 Things They Don't Tell You About Capitalism
23 Things They Don't Tell You About Capitalism (2010), Thing 16

„The Korean economic miracle was the result of a clever and pragmatic mixture of market incentives and state direction.“

—  Ha-Joon Chang, libro Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism
Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism (2008), Prologue, p. 15

„Culture changes with economic development.“

—  Ha-Joon Chang, libro Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism
Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism (2008), Ch. 9: 'Lazy Japanese and thieving Germans; Are some cultures incapable of economic development?', Lazy Japanese and thieving Germans, p. 196

„Low inflation and government prudence may be harmful for economic development.“

—  Ha-Joon Chang, libro Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism
Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism (2008), Prologue, p. 18

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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