Frases de Julian Jaynes

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Julian Jaynes

Fecha de nacimiento: 27. Febrero 1920
Fecha de muerte: 21. Noviembre 1997

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Julian Jaynes fue un psicólogo estadounidense de la Universidad de Yale y profesor de Princeton. Realizó amplios estudios sobre la conciencia y su aparición en la sociedad, los cuales planeó publicar en cinco libros; sin embargo sólo aparecieron tres, integrados en un único volumen: El origen de la conciencia en la ruptura de la mente bicameral. Desde su aparición, no dejó de levantar controversia en el mundo científico y académico. En dicho libro, analiza el problema de la conciencia humana y esboza una historia de ella, basándose en estudios neurológicos y arqueológicos. Según sus hipótesis la conciencia humana, tal como la interpretamos en nuestros días, no proviene de la evolución animal, sino que es un proceso aprendido y consolidado en los últimos tres mil años.

Después de la muerte de Jaynes, la Julian Jaynes Society retomó y estimuló dichos estudios.

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Frases Julian Jaynes

„And in this development lies the origin of civilization.“

—  Julian Jaynes
Context: The bicameral mind with its controlling gods was evolved as a final stage of the evolution of language. And in this development lies the origin of civilization. Book I, Chapter 6, p. 126

„Behavior now must be changed from within the new consciousness rather than from Mosaic laws carving behavior from without.“

—  Julian Jaynes
Context: Behavior now must be changed from within the new consciousness rather than from Mosaic laws carving behavior from without. Sin and desire are now within conscious desire and conscious contrition, rather than in the external behaviors of the decalogue and the penances of temple sacrifice and community punishment. The divine kingdom to be regained is psychological not physical. It is metaphorical not literal. It is "within" not in extenso. Book III, Chapter 1, p. 318

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„Reading in the third millennium B.C. may therefore have been a matter of hearing the cuneiform,“

—  Julian Jaynes
Context: Reading in the third millennium B. C. may therefore have been a matter of hearing the cuneiform, that is, hallucinating the speech from looking at its picture symbols, rather than visual reading of syllables in our sense. Book II, Chapter 2, p. 182

„Consciousness come after language!“

—  Julian Jaynes
Context: For if consciousness is based on language, then it follows that it is of much more recent origin than has been heretofore supposed. Consciousness come after language! The implications of such a position are extremely serious. Book I, Chapter 2, p. 66

„There is a complete lack of reference to business profits or loss in any of the cuneiform tablets that have been so far translated.“

—  Julian Jaynes
Context: Such trade was not, however, a true market. There were no prices under the pressures of supply and demand, no buying and selling, and no money. It was trade in the sense of equivalences established by divine decree. There is a complete lack of reference to business profits or loss in any of the cuneiform tablets that have been so far translated. Book II, Chapter 3, p. 210 (See also: Karl Polanyi)

„Subjective conscious mind is an analog of what is called the real world.“

—  Julian Jaynes
Context: Subjective conscious mind is an analog of what is called the real world. It is built up with a vocabulary or lexical field whose terms are all metaphors or analogs of behavior in the physical world. Its reality is of the same order as mathematics. It allows us to shortcut behavioral processes and arrive at more adequate decisions. Like mathematics, it is an operator rather than a thing or repository. And it is intimately bound up with volition and decision. Book I, Chapter 2, p. 55

„Poetry began with the bicameral mind.“

—  Julian Jaynes
Context: I shall state my thesis plain. The first poets were gods. Poetry began with the bicameral mind. Book III, Chapter 3, p. 361

„In a sense, we have become our own gods.“

—  Julian Jaynes
Context: And when it is suggested that the inward feelings of power or inward monitions or losses of judgement are the germs out of which the divine machinery developed, I return that truth is just the reverse, that the presence of voices which had to be obeyed were the absolute prerequisite to the conscious stage of mind in which it is the self that is responsible and can debate within itself, can order and direct, and that the creation of such a self is the product of culture. In a sense, we have become our own gods. Book I, Chapter 3, p. 79

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„The Trojan War was directed by hallucinations.“

—  Julian Jaynes
Context: The Trojan War was directed by hallucinations. And the soldiers who were so directed were not at all like us. They were noble automatons who knew not what they did. Book I, Chapter 3, p. 75

„Our sense of justice depends on our sense of time.“

—  Julian Jaynes
Context: Our sense of justice depends on our sense of time. Justice is a phenomenon only of consciousness, because time spread out in a spatial succession is its very essence. Book II, Chapter 5, p. 280

„It is something of a lovely surprise that the irregular conjugation of our most nondescript verb is thus a record of a time when man had no independent word for 'existence' and could only say that something 'grows' or that it “breathes.”“

—  Julian Jaynes
Context: It is not always obvious that metaphor has played this all-important function. But this is because the concrete metaphiers become hidden in phonemic change, leaving the words to exist on their own. Even such an unmetaphorical-sounding word as the verb 'to be' was generated from a metaphor. It comes from the Sanskrit bhu, “to grow, or make grow,” while the English forms 'am' and 'is' have evolved from the same root as the Sanskrit asmi, “to breathe.” It is something of a lovely surprise that the irregular conjugation of our most nondescript verb is thus a record of a time when man had no independent word for 'existence' and could only say that something 'grows' or that it “breathes.” Book I, Chapter 2, p. 51

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