Frases de Ivan Illich

Ivan Illich Foto
9   4

Ivan Illich

Fecha de nacimiento: 4. Septiembre 1926
Fecha de muerte: 2. Diciembre 2002

Iván Illich fue un pensador austríaco polifacético y polémico, clasificado como anarquista, autor de una serie de críticas a las instituciones clave del progreso en la cultura moderna. Criticó la educación escolar, la medicina profesional y de patente, así como el trabajo ajeno y no creador, y el consumo voraz de energía necesaria para el desarrollo económico como una negación de la equidad y la justicia social, entre otros muchos temas.[1]​ Su obra se inscribe dentro de las corrientes antiindustriales.

Su esplendor surgió al conocerse sus primeras publicaciones en los años 70, para caer luego en un ciclo de reinterés y aparente olvido, pues su lectura está ligada al surgimiento de diversos movimientos sociales .[cita requerida]

Obras

„The Latin osculum is neither very old nor frequent. It is one of three words that can be translated by the English, "kiss."“

—  Ivan Illich

The Cultivation of Conspiracy (1998)
Contexto: The Latin osculum is neither very old nor frequent. It is one of three words that can be translated by the English, "kiss." In comparison with the affectionate basium and the lascivious suavium, osculum was a latecomer into classical Latin, and was used in only one circumstance as a ritual gesture: In the second century, it became the sign given by a departing soldier to a woman, thereby recognizing her expected child as his offspring.
In the Christian liturgy of the first century, the osculum assumed a new function. It became one of two high points in the celebration of the Eucharist. Conspiratio, the mount-to-mouth kiss, became the solemn liturgical gesture by which participants in the cult-action shared their breath or spirit with one another. It came to signify their union in one Holy Spirit, the community that takes shape in God's breath. The ecclesia came to be through a public ritual action, the liturgy, and the soul of this liturgy was the conspiratio. Explicitly, corporeally, the central Christian celebration was understood as a co-breathing, a con-spiracy, the bringing about of a common atmosphere, a divine milieu.

Help us translate English quotes

Discover interesting quotes and translate them.

Start translating

„While once friendship in our western tradition was the supreme flower of politics, I think that if community life exists at all today, it is in some way the consequence of friendship cultivated by each one who initiates it.“

—  Ivan Illich

We the People interview (1996)
Contexto: While once friendship in our western tradition was the supreme flower of politics, I think that if community life exists at all today, it is in some way the consequence of friendship cultivated by each one who initiates it. This goes beyond anything which people usually talk about, saying each one of you is responsible for the friendships he/she can develop, because society will only be as good as the political result of these friendships.

„Community in our European tradition is not the outcome of an act of authoritative foundation, nor a gift from nature or its gods, nor the result of management, planning and design, but the consequence of a conspiracy, a deliberate, mutual, somatic and gratuitous gift to each other.“

—  Ivan Illich

The Cultivation of Conspiracy (1998)
Contexto: Community in our European tradition is not the outcome of an act of authoritative foundation, nor a gift from nature or its gods, nor the result of management, planning and design, but the consequence of a conspiracy, a deliberate, mutual, somatic and gratuitous gift to each other. The prototype of that conspiracy lies in the celebration of the early Christian liturgy in which, no matter their origin, men and women, Greeks and Jews, slaves and citizens, engender a physical reality that transcends them. The shared breath, the con-spiratio are the "peace" understood as the community that arises from it.

„This breaking of the limitations of hospitality to a small in-group, of offering it to the broadest possible in-group, and saying, you determine who your guest is, might be taken as the key message of Christianity.“

—  Ivan Illich

We the People interview (1996)
Contexto: This breaking of the limitations of hospitality to a small in-group, of offering it to the broadest possible in-group, and saying, you determine who your guest is, might be taken as the key message of Christianity.
Then in the year 300 and something, finally the Church got recognition. The bishops were made into something like magistrates. The first things those guys do, these new bishops, is create houses of hospitality, institutionalizing what was given to us as a vocation by Jesus, as a personal vocation, institutionalizing it, creating roofs, refuges, for foreigners. Immediately, very interesting, quite a few of the great Christian thinkers of that time, 1600 years ago (John Chrysostom is one), shout: "If you do that, if you institutionalize charity, if you make charity or hospitality into an act of a non-person, a community, Christians will cease to remain famous for what we are now famous for, for having always an extra mattress, a crust of old bread and a candle, for him who might knock at our door." But, for political reasons, the Church became, from the year 400 or 500 on, the main device for roughly a thousand years of proving that the State can be Christian by paying the Church to take care institutionally of small fractions of those who had needs, relieving the ordinary Christian household of the most uncomfortable duty of having a door, having a threshold open for him who might knock and whom I might not choose.

„The habitual passenger cannot grasp the folly of traffic based overwhelmingly on transport. His inherited perceptions of space and time and of personal pace have been industrially deformed. He has lost the power to conceive of himself outside the passenger role.“

—  Ivan Illich, libro Energy and Equity

"Energy and Equity" (1974).
Contexto: The habitual passenger cannot grasp the folly of traffic based overwhelmingly on transport. His inherited perceptions of space and time and of personal pace have been industrially deformed. He has lost the power to conceive of himself outside the passenger role. Addicted to being carried along, he has lost control over the physical, social, and psychic powers that reside in man's feet. The passenger has come to identify territory with the untouchable landscape through which he is rushed. He has become impotent to establish his domain, mark it with his imprint, and assert his sovereignty over it. He has lost confidence in his power to admit others into his presence and to share space consciously with them. He can no longer face the remote by himself. Left on his own, he feels immobile.
The habitual passenger must adopt a new set of beliefs and expectations if he is to feel secure in the strange world where both liaisons and loneliness are products of conveyance. To "gather" for him means to be brought together by vehicles. He comes to believe that political power grows out of the capacity of a transportation system, and in its absence is the result of access to the television screen. He takes freedom of movement to be the same as one's claim on propulsion. He believes that the level of democratic process correlates to the power of transportation and communications systems. He has lost faith in the political power of the feet and of the tongue. As a result, what he wants is not more liberty as a citizen but better service as a client. He does not insist on his freedom to move and to speak to people but on his claim to be shipped and to be informed by media. He wants a better product rather than freedom from servitude to it. It is vital that he come to see that the acceleration he demands is self-defeating, and that it must result in a further decline of equity, leisure, and autonomy.

„By definition, resources call for defense by police. Once they are defended, their recovery as commons becomes increasingly difficult. This is a special reason for urgency.“

—  Ivan Illich

Silence is a Commons (1982)
Contexto: A transformation of the environment from a commons to a productive resource constitutes the most fundamental form of environmental degradation. This degradation has a long history, which coincides with the history of capitalism but can in no way just be reduced to it. Unfortunately the importance of this transformation has been overlooked or belittled by political ecology so far. It needs to be recognized if we are to organize defense movements of what remains of the commons. This defense constitutes the crucial public task for political action during the eighties. The task must be undertaken urgently because commons can exist without police, but resources cannot. Just as traffic does, computers call for police, and for ever more of them, and in ever more subtle forms.
By definition, resources call for defense by police. Once they are defended, their recovery as commons becomes increasingly difficult. This is a special reason for urgency.

„Machines which ape people are tending to encroach on every aspect of people's lives, and that such machines force people to behave like machines. The new electronic devices do indeed have the power to force people to "communicate" with them and with each other on the terms of the machine. Whatever structurally does not fit the logic of machines is effectively filtered from a culture dominated by their use.“

—  Ivan Illich

Silence is a Commons (1982)
Contexto: Machines which ape people are tending to encroach on every aspect of people's lives, and that such machines force people to behave like machines. The new electronic devices do indeed have the power to force people to "communicate" with them and with each other on the terms of the machine. Whatever structurally does not fit the logic of machines is effectively filtered from a culture dominated by their use.
The machine-like behaviour of people chained to electronics constitutes a degradation of their well-being and of their dignity which, for most people in the long run, becomes intolerable. Observations of the sickening effect of programmed environments show that people in them become indolent, impotent, narcissistic and apolitical. The political process breaks down, because people cease to be able to govern themselves; they demand to be managed.

„Enclosure, once accepted, redefines community.“

—  Ivan Illich

Silence is a Commons (1982)
Contexto: Enclosure, once accepted, redefines community. Enclosure undermines the local autonomy of community. Enclosure of the commons is thus as much in the interest of professionals and of state bureaucrats as it is in the interest of capitalists. Enclosure allows the bureaucrats to define local community as impotent — "ei-ei schau-schau!!!" — to provide for its own survival. People become economic individuals that depend for their survival on commodities that are produced for them. Fundamentally, most citizens' movements represent a rebellion against this environmentally induced redefinition of people as consumers.

„In the Christian liturgy of the first century, the osculum assumed a new function. It became one of two high points in the celebration of the Eucharist.“

—  Ivan Illich

The Cultivation of Conspiracy (1998)
Contexto: The Latin osculum is neither very old nor frequent. It is one of three words that can be translated by the English, "kiss." In comparison with the affectionate basium and the lascivious suavium, osculum was a latecomer into classical Latin, and was used in only one circumstance as a ritual gesture: In the second century, it became the sign given by a departing soldier to a woman, thereby recognizing her expected child as his offspring.
In the Christian liturgy of the first century, the osculum assumed a new function. It became one of two high points in the celebration of the Eucharist. Conspiratio, the mount-to-mouth kiss, became the solemn liturgical gesture by which participants in the cult-action shared their breath or spirit with one another. It came to signify their union in one Holy Spirit, the community that takes shape in God's breath. The ecclesia came to be through a public ritual action, the liturgy, and the soul of this liturgy was the conspiratio. Explicitly, corporeally, the central Christian celebration was understood as a co-breathing, a con-spiracy, the bringing about of a common atmosphere, a divine milieu.

„Inevitably modern technology has polarized society. It has polluted the environment.“

—  Ivan Illich

We the People interview (1996)
Contexto: Inevitably modern technology has polarized society. It has polluted the environment. It has disabled very simple native abilities and made people dependent on objects... Like an automobile which makes the world inaccessible, when actually in Latin "automobile" means "using your feet to get somewhere." The automobile makes it unthinkable. I was recently told, "You're a liar!" when I said to somebody I walked down the spine of the Andes. Every Spaniard in the sixteenth, seventeenth century did that. The idea that somebody could just walk! He can jog perhaps in the morning, but he can't walk anywhere! The world has become inaccessible because we drive there.

„The appropriation of the environment by the few was clearly recognized as an intolerable abuse.“

—  Ivan Illich

Silence is a Commons (1982)
Contexto: The appropriation of the grassland by the lords was challenged, but the more fundamental transformation of grassland (or of roads) from commons to resource has happened, until recently, without being subjected to criticism. The appropriation of the environment by the few was clearly recognized as an intolerable abuse. By contrast, the even more degrading transformation of people into members of an industrial labour force and into consumers was taken, until recently, for granted. For almost a hundred years the majority of political parties has challenged the accumulation of environmental resources in private hands. However, the issue was argued in terms of the private utilization of these resources, not the distinction of commons. Thus anticapitalist politics so far have bolstered the legitimacy of transforming commons into resources.

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

Autores similares

Maria Montessori Foto
Maria Montessori25
pedagoga italiana
Elfriede Jelinek Foto
Elfriede Jelinek16
escritora austríaca
Peter Handke Foto
Peter Handke6
escritor, guionista y director austriaco
Friedrich August von Hayek Foto
Friedrich August von Hayek26
economista y y filósofo británico
Viktor Frankl Foto
Viktor Frankl108
neurólogo y psiquiatra austriaco
Martin Buber Foto
Martin Buber5
Filósofo y escritor judío.
Stefan Zweig Foto
Stefan Zweig60
escritor austríaco
Ludwig von Mises Foto
Ludwig von Mises35
Economista de la escuela austriaca
Ludwig Wittgenstein Foto
Ludwig Wittgenstein44
filósofo nacido en Viena
Aniversarios de hoy
Juan Pablo Duarte Foto
Juan Pablo Duarte15
conocido como uno de los fundadores de República Dominicana 1813 - 1876
Policarpa Salavarrieta Foto
Policarpa Salavarrieta6
heroína colombiana 1795 - 1817
Lucky Luciano Foto
Lucky Luciano10
líder mafioso de Estados Unidos 1897 - 1962
Sabino Arana Foto
Sabino Arana64
político español fundador del Partido Nacionalista Vasco 1865 - 1903
Otros 58 aniversarios hoy
Autores similares
Maria Montessori Foto
Maria Montessori25
pedagoga italiana
Elfriede Jelinek Foto
Elfriede Jelinek16
escritora austríaca
Peter Handke Foto
Peter Handke6
escritor, guionista y director austriaco
Friedrich August von Hayek Foto
Friedrich August von Hayek26
economista y y filósofo británico
Viktor Frankl Foto
Viktor Frankl108
neurólogo y psiquiatra austriaco