Frases de Abraham Isaac Kook

Abraham Isaac Kook Foto
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Abraham Isaac Kook

Fecha de nacimiento: 7. Septiembre 1865
Fecha de muerte: 1. Septiembre 1935

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Abraham Isaac Kook emigró a Palestina en 1904. En 1921, se convierte en el primer gran rabino Askenazí del "Hogar Nacional Judío" en el Mandato Británico de Palestina, cargo que se acababa de crear. Era un rabino conocido por sus conocimientos talmúdicos. En 1924, creó la Yeshiva Merkaz Harav.

Su aceptación del cargo de gran rabino, cargo "sionista" por excelencia, demuestra su conformidad con los principios del sionismo religioso. Desde este cargo utilizará su prestigio para reforzar la corriente sionista religiosa en el seno del Judaísmo ortodoxo, en el Mandato Británico de Palestina y en el resto del mundo.

Es necesario recordar que en 1912, los ortodoxos "modernos" y los ultraortodoxos habían creado el partido Agudat Israel, muy hostil al sionismo inicialmente, si bien con el paso de los años prácticamente la totalidad de los ortodoxos de Agudat Israel apoyaron la creación del Estado de Israel, llegando a firmar su declaración de independencia. Esta evolución se debe en buena parte al empeño del rabino Kook por compatibilizar la ortodoxia religiosa con el sionismo y al genocidio de los judíos durante el Holocausto.

Sin embargo, hay que señalar que la actitud del rabino Kook ante el movimiento Mizrahi en particular y ante el sionismo en general no está exenta de crítica. El rabino Kook se preocupaba particularmente ante la influencia de los judíos laicos en el porvenir del judaísmo, y dudaba de la capacidad de respuesta del Mizrahi.

Más allá de su capacidad para legitimar el sionismo en el seno del Judaísmo ortodoxo, que en principio mostraba importantes reticencias, el rabino Kook orientó también la ideología del sionismo religioso hacia una vertiente más mesiánica. Para Kook, la redención del pueblo judío se ha iniciado ya, y los sionistas, incluso los ateos, son portadores de partes de esta redención, a veces a su pesar. La reconstrucción de una vida judía autónoma en Palestina permite y anuncia el retorno de los judíos de su exilio, luego su retorno a la práctica religiosa, y por último la llegada del Mesías. El sionismo es pues una herramienta en el proyecto de Dios para el advenimiento de los tiempos mesiánicos.

La influencia del rabino Kook en el desarrollo del sionismo religioso es cuádruple:

Reforzó la adhesión al sionismo en el seno de las corrientes judías ortodoxas .

Lo orientó en un sentido mesiánico, relacionando el retorno del Mesías con el sionismo.

Unió la tierra de Israel a la salvación religiosa del pueblo judío.

Debido a esas dos anteriores evoluciones, instituyó las bases ideológicas de la evolución ulterior y ultranacionalista de una parte importante del sionismo religioso, aunque él no fuera directamente responsable de esta interpretación.

Frases Abraham Isaac Kook

„The delight of the Torah is ignited by an inner awareness. A man begins to sense the great tapestry of each letter and point.“

— Abraham Isaac Kook
Context: The delight of the Torah is ignited by an inner awareness. A man begins to sense the great tapestry of each letter and point. Every concept and content, every notion and idea, of every spiritual movement, of every vibration, intellectual and emotional, from the immediate and general to the distant and detailed, from matters lofty, spiritual, and ethical according to their outward profile, to matters practical, obligatory, seemingly frightening, and forceful, and at the same time complex and full of content and great mental exertion — all together become known by a supernal holy awareness. [http://www.orot.com/lights.html XXVIII : The Inner Light of Torah in the Land of Israel, as translated by Rabbi Bezalel Naor, p. 208]

„Our generation is wonderful generation, full of wonder.“

— Abraham Isaac Kook
Context: Our generation is wonderful generation, full of wonder. It's very hard to find an example of it in all our history. Composed of contradictions — light and darkness mixed. Ma'amar Hador.

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„Moses and Elijah are redeemers in a single redemption; the beginner and the ender, the opener and closer together fill the unit.“

— Abraham Isaac Kook
Context: The redemption continues. The redemption from Egypt and the complete redemption of the future are one unending action: the action of the strong hand and outstretched arm, which began in Egypt and works though all eventualities. Moses and Elijah are redeemers in a single redemption; the beginner and the ender, the opener and closer together fill the unit. The spirit of Israel hears the sound of the movements, the redemptive actions, brought about through all eventualities until the sprouting of redemption will be complete, in all its plentitude and [goodness]. [http://www.orot.com/lights.html LXI : Redemption an Ongoing Process, as translated by Rabbi Bezalel Naor, p. 139]

„... The preferred Shofar of Redemption is the Divine call that awakens and inspires the people with holy motivations, through faith in God and the unique mission of the people of Israel. This elevated awakening corresponds to the ram's horn, a horn that recalls Abraham's supreme love of God and dedication in Akeidat Yitzchak, the Binding of Isaac. It was the call of this shofar, with its holy vision of heavenly Jerusalem united with earthly Jerusalem, that inspired Nachmanides, Rabbi Yehuda HaLevy, Rabbi Ovadia of Bartenura, the students of the Vilna Gaon, and the disciples of the Baal Shem Tov to ascend to Eretz Yisrael. It is for this "great shofar," an awakening of spiritual greatness and idealism, that we fervently pray. There exists a second Shofar of Redemption, a less optimal form of awakening. This shofar calls out to the Jewish people to return to their homeland, to the land where our ancestors, our prophets and our kings, once lived. It beckons us to live as a free people, to raise our families in a Jewish country and a Jewish culture. This is a kosher shofar, albeit not a great shofar like the first type of awakening. We may still recite a blessing over this shofar. There is, however, a third type of shofar. The least desirable shofar comes from the horn of an unclean animal. This shofar corresponds to the wake-up call that comes from the persecutions of anti-Semitic nations, warning the Jews to escape while they still can and flee to their own land. Enemies force the Jewish people to be redeemed, blasting the trumpets of war, bombarding them with deafening threats of harassment and torment, giving them no respite. The shofar of unclean beasts is thus transformed into a Shofar of Redemption. Whoever failed to hear the calls of the first two shofars will be forced to listen to the call of this last shofar. Over this shofar, however, no blessing is recited. "One does not recite a blessing over a cup of affliction."“

— Abraham Isaac Kook
[https://www.israelnationalnews.com/Articles/Article.aspx/13794 1933 Sermon: The Call of the Great Shofar]

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„The difference between the Jewish soul, in all its independence, inner desires, longings, character and standing, and the soul of all the Gentiles, on all of their levels, is greater and deeper than the difference between the soul of a man and the soul of an animal, for the difference in the latter case is one of quantity, while the difference in the first case is one of essential quality.“

— Abraham Isaac Kook
Orot Yisrael, Ch. 5, article 10, p. 156; as quoted in [http://www.daatemet.org.il/articles/article.cfm?article_id=119&lang=en "The Distinction between Jews and Gentiles in Torah" by Rabbi David Bar Chaim] Variant: The dissimilarity between the Jewish soul, in all its independence, inner desires, longings, character and standing vis-à-vis the soul of all the Gentiles — on all of their levels — is greater and deeper than the difference between the soul of a man and the soul of an animal, for the difference in the latter case is one of quantity, while the difference in the first case is one of essential quality As quoted in [http://rabbimichaelsamuel.com/2010/02/2744/#_ftn1 "A British Synagogue Bans a Famous Hassidic Text!" (February 2010) by Rabbi Michael Leo Samuel].

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