Frases de Alexander Hamilton

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Alexander Hamilton

Fecha de nacimiento: 11. Enero 1755
Fecha de muerte: 12. Julio 1804
Otros nombres:Ալեքսանդր Համիլթոն

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Alexander Hamilton fue un economista, estadista, político, escritor, abogado, y el primer Secretario del Tesoro de los Estados Unidos .

Participó en la Guerra de la Independencia, siendo Héroe de Guerra en la Batalla de Yorktown , actuando como Ayudante de campo , secretario y amigo íntimo de George Washington. Es considerado uno de los Padres Fundadores de los Estados Unidos.

Tomó parte en la redacción de la Constitución de los Estados Unidos. Para lograr convencer a los neoyorquinos de la necesidad de aprobarla, pidió a James Madison y John Jay que contribuyeran a una serie de ensayos bajo el seudónimo «Publius», conocidos habitualmente como los «Papeles Federalistas» . Los expertos en Historia y eruditos atribuyen 51 de los 85 Papeles federalistas a Alexander Hamilton, 5 a John Jay y 29 a James Madison; motivo por el cual también se conoce a Alexander Hamilton como "El Padre de los Papeles Federalistas".

Fue el creador del Partido Federal de los Estados Unidos, primer partido político de la historia de los Estados Unidos, el cual dirigió hasta su muerte.

Elegido por Washington primer Secretario del Tesoro de la nación , desde ese cargo organizó la banca, estableciendo el Primer Banco de los Estados Unidos y realizó una política proteccionista que, al gravar con impuestos los licores fuertes importados, causó la llamada Guerra del whiskey .

Tuvo numerosos enfrentamientos con Thomas Jefferson y con James Madison al apostar por dotar al Gobierno interestatal de mayores competencias, mientras que su rival se inclinaba a darle mayor poder a los gobiernos estatales. En este contexto, se produce también uno de los primeros debates sobre economía política de los Estados Unidos, en el que Hamilton se muestra partidario de fomentar la industria con medidas proteccionistas , como contrapartida a la idea de fomentar la agricultura dejando al comercio al servicio de ella, postura adoptada por Thomas Jefferson; a pesar del triunfo político del último, los hamiltonianos vieron triunfar sus ideas.

Alexander Hamilton es considerado a menudo el «santo patrón» de la Escuela americana que, según algunos historiadores, dominó la política económica norteamericana a partir de 1861. Apoyó firmemente la intervención gubernamental en favor de la industria y el comercio nacionales, a la manera de Jean-Baptiste Colbert, como pronto desde el otoño de 1781.

Hamilton se oponía a los postulados británicos del comercio libre, que consideraba que favorecían los intereses de las potencias colonialistas e imperialistas, en favor del proteccionismo norteamericano, que en cambio favorecerían el desarrollo industrial y la economía de las naciones emergentes.

Sostuvo un duelo con el vicepresidente Aaron Burr el 11 de julio de 1804, y falleció de una herida de bala disparada por el mismo hombre al día siguiente.

Frases Alexander Hamilton

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„Civil liberty is only natural liberty, modified and secured by the sanctions of civil society. It is not a thing, in its own nature, precarious and dependent on human will and caprice; but it is conformable to the constitution of man, as well as necessary to the well-being of society.“

— Alexander Hamilton
Context: The fundamental source of all your errors, sophisms, and false reasonings, is a total ignorance of the natural rights of mankind. Were you once to become acquainted with these, you could never entertain a thought, that all men are not, by nature, entitled to a parity of privileges. You would be convinced, that natural liberty is a gift of the beneficent Creator, to the whole human race; and that civil liberty is founded in that; and cannot be wrested from any people, without the most manifest violation of justice. Civil liberty is only natural liberty, modified and secured by the sanctions of civil society. It is not a thing, in its own nature, precarious and dependent on human will and caprice; but it is conformable to the constitution of man, as well as necessary to the well-being of society.

„In the mean time, the maintenance of two Citizens, instead of one, is going on; the State has two members instead of one; and they together consume twice the value of what is produced from the land.“

— Alexander Hamilton
Context: To affirm, that the labour of the Manufacturer is unproductive, because he consumes as much of the produce of land, as he adds value to the raw materials which he manufactures, is not better founded, than it would be to affirm, that the labour of the farmer, which furnishes materials to the manufacturer, is unproductive, because he consumes an equal value of manufactured articles. Each furnishes a certain portion of the produce of his labor to the other, and each destroys a correspondent portion of the produce of the labour of the other. In the mean time, the maintenance of two Citizens, instead of one, is going on; the State has two members instead of one; and they together consume twice the value of what is produced from the land.

„The prodigious affect of such a Machine is easily conceived. To this invention is to be attributed essentially the immense progress, which has been so suddenly made in Great Britain in the various fabrics of Cotton.“

— Alexander Hamilton
Context: The Cotton Mill invented in England, within the last twenty years, is a signal illustration of the general proposition, which has been just advanced. In consequence of it, all the different processes for spinning Cotton are performed by means of Machines, which are put in motion by water, and attended chiefly by women and Children; and by a smaller number of persons, in the whole, than are requisite in the ordinary mode of spinning. And it is an advantage of great moment that the operations of this mill continue with convenience, during the night, as well as through the day. The prodigious affect of such a Machine is easily conceived. To this invention is to be attributed essentially the immense progress, which has been so suddenly made in Great Britain in the various fabrics of Cotton.

„In what can it be so useful, as in prompting and improving the efforts of industry?“

— Alexander Hamilton
Context: In countries where there is great private wealth, much may be effected by the voluntary contributions of patriotic individuals; but in a community situated like that of the United States, the public purse must supply the deficiency of private resource. In what can it be so useful, as in prompting and improving the efforts of industry?

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„The complete independence of the Courts of justice is peculiarly essential in a limited Constitution. By a limited Constitution, I understand one which contains certain specified exceptions to the Legislative authority“

— Alexander Hamilton
Context: The complete independence of the Courts of justice is peculiarly essential in a limited Constitution. By a limited Constitution, I understand one which contains certain specified exceptions to the Legislative authority; such, for instance, as that it shall pass no bills of attainder, no ex post facto laws, and the like. Limitations of this kind can be preserved in practice no other way than through the medium of the Courts of justice; whose duty it must be to declare all Acts contrary to the manifest tenor of the Constitution void. Without this, all the reservations of particular rights or privileges would amount to nothing. No. 78

„I have studied it, and I can prove its truth as clearly as any proposition ever submitted to the mind of man.“

— Alexander Hamilton
Context: It was the tendency to infidelity he saw so rife that led him often to declare in the social circle his estimate of Christian truth. “I have examined carefully,” he said to a friend from his boyhood, “the evidence of the Christian religion; and, if I was sitting as a juror upon its authenticity, I should unhesitatingly give my verdict in its favor.” To another person, he observed, “I have studied it, and I can prove its truth as clearly as any proposition ever submitted to the mind of man.” John Church Hamilton, History of the republic of the United States of America: as traced in the writings of Alexander Hamilton and of his cotemporaries, v. 7 p. 790. John Church Hamilton was Alexander Hamilton's son. He gives his source for the first quotation as the Reminiscences of General Morton, but gives no source for the second.

„For why declare that things shall not be done which there is no power to do?“

— Alexander Hamilton
Context: I go further, and affirm that bills of rights, in the sense and to the extent in which they are contended for, are not only unnecessary in the proposed Constitution, but would even be dangerous. They would contain various exceptions to powers not granted; and, on this very account, would afford a colorable pretext to claim more than were granted. For why declare that things shall not be done which there is no power to do? No. 84

„But the system which has been mentioned, is far from characterising the general policy of Nations.“

— Alexander Hamilton
Context: If the system of perfect liberty to industry and commerce were the prevailing system of nations, the arguments which dissuade a country in the predicament of the United States, from the zealous pursuits of manufactures would doubtless have great force. (...) But the system which has been mentioned, is far from characterising the general policy of Nations. The prevalent one has been regulated by an opposite spirit. The consequence of it is, that the United States are to a certain extent in the situation of a country precluded from foreign Commerce. They can indeed, without difficulty obtain from abroad the manufactured supplies, of which they are in want; but they experience numerous and very injurious impediments to the emission and vent of their own commodities. (...) In such a position of things, the United States cannot exchange with Europe on equal terms, and the want of reciprocity would render them the victim of a system, which should induce them to confine their views to Agriculture and refrain from Manufactures. A constant and increasing necessity, on their part, for the commodities of Europe, and only a partial and occasional demand for their own, in return, could not but expose them to a state of impoverishment, compared with the opulence to which their political and natural advantages authorise them to aspire.

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„The right of parliament to legislate for us cannot be accounted for upon any reasonable grounds. The constitution of Great Britain is very properly called a limited monarchy, the people having reserved to themselves a share in the legislature, as a check upon the regal authority, to prevent its degenerating into despotism and tyranny.“

— Alexander Hamilton
Context: The right of parliament to legislate for us cannot be accounted for upon any reasonable grounds. The constitution of Great Britain is very properly called a limited monarchy, the people having reserved to themselves a share in the legislature, as a check upon the regal authority, to prevent its degenerating into despotism and tyranny. The very aim and intention of the democratical part, or the house of commons, is to secure the rights of the people. Its very being depends upon those rights. Its whole power is derived from them, and must be terminated by them.

„The foregoing suggestions are not designed to inculcate an opinion that manufacturing industry is more productive than that of Agriculture. They are intended rather to shew that the reverse of this proposition is not ascertained;“

— Alexander Hamilton
Context: The foregoing suggestions are not designed to inculcate an opinion that manufacturing industry is more productive than that of Agriculture. They are intended rather to shew that the reverse of this proposition is not ascertained; that the general arguments which are brought to establish it are not satisfactory; and consequently that a supposition of the superior productiveness of Tillage ought to be no obstacle to listening to any substantial inducements to the encouragement of manufactures.

„To cherish and stimulate the activity of the human mind, by multiplying the objects of enterprise, is not among the least considerable of the expedients, by which the wealth of a nation may be promoted.“

— Alexander Hamilton
Context: To cherish and stimulate the activity of the human mind, by multiplying the objects of enterprise, is not among the least considerable of the expedients, by which the wealth of a nation may be promoted. Even things in themselves not positively advantageous, sometimes become so, by their tendency to provoke exertion. Every new scene, which is opened to the busy nature of man to rouse and exert itself, is the addition of a new energy to the general stock of effort.

„There is yet a further and a weightier reason for the permanency of the Judicial offices, which is deducible from the nature of the qualifications they require.“

— Alexander Hamilton
Context: There is yet a further and a weightier reason for the permanency of the Judicial offices, which is deducible from the nature of the qualifications they require. It has been frequently remarked, with great propriety, that a voluminous code of laws is one of the inconveniences necessarily connected with the advantages of a free Government. To avoid an arbitrary discretion in the Courts, it is indispensable that they should be bound down by strict rules and precedents, which serve to define and point out their duty in every particular case that comes before them; and it will readily be conceived from the variety of controversies which grow out of the folly and wickedness of mankind, that the records of those precedents must unavoidably swell to a very considerable bulk, and must demand long and laborious study to acquire a competent knowledge of them. Hence it is, that there can be but few men in the society, who will have sufficient skill in the laws to qualify them for the stations of Judges. And making the proper deductions for the ordinary depravity of human nature, the number must be still smaller of those who unite the requisite integrity with the requisite knowledge. These considerations apprize us, that the Government can have no great option between fit characters; and that a temporary duration in office, which would naturally discourage such characters from quitting a lucrative line of practice to accept a seat on the Bench, would have a tendency to throw the administration of justice into hands less able, and less well qualified, to conduct it with utility and dignity. No. 78

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