Frases de Heliogábalo

 Heliogábalo Foto
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Heliogábalo

Fecha de nacimiento: 20. Marzo 203
Fecha de muerte: 11. Marzo 222

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Heliogábalo —en latín, Elagabalus— fue un emperador romano de la dinastía Severa que reinó desde 218 hasta 222. Su nombre de nacimiento era Vario Avito Basiano, hijo de Julia Soemia Basiana y Sexto Vario Marcelo, y en su juventud sirvió como sacerdote del dios El-Gabal en su ciudad natal, Emesa . Al convertirse en emperador tomó el nombre de Marco Aurelio Antonino Augusto, y solo fue conocido como Heliogábalo mucho tiempo después de su muerte.

En 217, el emperador Caracalla fue asesinado y reemplazado por su prefecto del pretorio, Marco Opelio Macrino. La tía materna de Caracalla, Julia Mesa, promovió con éxito una revuelta entre la Legio III Gallica para conseguir que su nieto mayor, Heliogábalo, fuera declarado emperador en su lugar. Macrino fue derrotado el 8 de junio de 218, en la Batalla de Antioquía, con lo cual Heliogábalo, de apenas catorce años de edad, ascendió al trono imperial y comenzó un reinado marcado por la polémica.

Durante su mandato, Heliogábalo hizo caso omiso de las tradiciones religiosas y los tabúes sexuales de Roma. Reemplazó al dios Júpiter, cabeza del panteón romano, por el dios Sol Invicto , y obligó a miembros destacados del gobierno de Roma a participar en los ritos religiosos en honor de la deidad, de la que él era sumo-sacerdote. Se casó hasta cinco veces y se dice que otorgó favores a personas que se creía pudieran ser sus amantes homosexuales, hasta el punto de que se le acusó de haberse prostituido él mismo en el palacio imperial. Su comportamiento provocó el rechazo de la Guardia Pretoriana y del Senado romano.

En medio de una creciente oposición, Heliogábalo, de solo 18 años de edad, fue asesinado y reemplazado por su primo, Alejandro Severo el 11 de marzo de 222, en un complot tramado por su abuela, Julia Mesa, y por miembros de la Guardia Pretoriana. Heliogábalo desarrolló entre sus contemporáneos una reputación de excentricidad, decadencia y fanatismo que fue probablemente exagerada por sus sucesores y rivales políticos.[1]​ Esta propaganda trascendió posteriormente y, como resultado de ello, Heliogábalo es uno de los emperadores romanos más vilipendiados por los historiadores antiguos. Por ejemplo, Edward Gibbon escribió que Heliogábalo «se abandonó a los placeres más groseros y a una furia sin control».[2]​ B.G. Niebuhr consideró que el nombre de Heliogábalo quedaba grabado en la historia por encima de otros debido a su «indescriptiblemente desagradable vida».[3]​

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Frases Heliogábalo

„With regard to religion, the emperor's promotion of the cult of the Emesene sun-god was certainly ridiculed by contemporary observers, but this cult was popular among soldiers and would remain so.“

—  Elagabalus
Context: Scholars have often viewed the failure of Elagabalus' reign as a clash of cultures between "Eastern" (Syrian) and "Western" (Roman), but this dichotomy is not very useful. The criticisms of the emperor's effeminacy and sexual behavior mirror those made of earlier emperors (such as Nero) and do not need to be explained through ethnic stereotypes. With regard to religion, the emperor's promotion of the cult of the Emesene sun-god was certainly ridiculed by contemporary observers, but this cult was popular among soldiers and would remain so. Moreover, the cult continued to be promoted by later emperors of non-Syrian ethnicity, calling the god The Unconquered Sun (Sol Invictus). Elagabalus is best understood as a teenager who was raised near the luxury of the imperial court and who then suffered a drastic change of fortune brought about by the sudden deaths — probably within one year — of his father, his grandfather and his cousin, the emperor Caracalla. Thrust upon the throne, Elagabalus lacked the required discipline. For a while, Romans may well have been amused by his "Merrie Monarch" behavior, but he ended up offending those he needed to inspire. His reign tragically demonstrated the difficulties of having a teenage emperor. Michael L. Meckler, in [http://www.roman-emperors.org/elagabal.htm "Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.)" in De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors (1997)]

„Thrust upon the throne, Elagabalus lacked the required discipline. For a while, Romans may well have been amused by his "Merrie Monarch" behavior, but he ended up offending those he needed to inspire.“

—  Elagabalus
Context: Scholars have often viewed the failure of Elagabalus' reign as a clash of cultures between "Eastern" (Syrian) and "Western" (Roman), but this dichotomy is not very useful. The criticisms of the emperor's effeminacy and sexual behavior mirror those made of earlier emperors (such as Nero) and do not need to be explained through ethnic stereotypes. With regard to religion, the emperor's promotion of the cult of the Emesene sun-god was certainly ridiculed by contemporary observers, but this cult was popular among soldiers and would remain so. Moreover, the cult continued to be promoted by later emperors of non-Syrian ethnicity, calling the god The Unconquered Sun (Sol Invictus). Elagabalus is best understood as a teenager who was raised near the luxury of the imperial court and who then suffered a drastic change of fortune brought about by the sudden deaths — probably within one year — of his father, his grandfather and his cousin, the emperor Caracalla. Thrust upon the throne, Elagabalus lacked the required discipline. For a while, Romans may well have been amused by his "Merrie Monarch" behavior, but he ended up offending those he needed to inspire. His reign tragically demonstrated the difficulties of having a teenage emperor. Michael L. Meckler, in [http://www.roman-emperors.org/elagabal.htm "Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.)" in De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors (1997)]

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„I am emperor. It is I who know what is best for Rome. Not you traitors.“

—  Elagabalus
Context: I am emperor. It is I who know what is best for Rome. Not you traitors. Now, let go of my horses! Statement as he prepared to flee a camp after angry exchanges and insults with his Praetorian Guard; as quoted in The Gigantic Book of Horse Wisdom (2007) by Thomas Meagher, p. 298

„He undertook to disparage my age, when he himself had appointed his five-year-old son.“

—  Elagabalus
Referring to the Emperor Macrinus and his declaration of his son Diadumenianus to be '"Caesar". The head of Diadumenianus was presented to Elagabalus as a trophy. As quoted in Dio's Roman History (1955), as translated by Earnest Cary, p. 439

„[He was] delighted to be called the mistress, the wife, the Queen of Hierocles.“

—  Elagabalus
Harry Benjamin in [http://www.symposion.com/ijt/benjamin/ The Transsexual Phenomenon] (1966)

„Leave my mother alone!“

—  Elagabalus
Last words, as reported in The Book of Ancient Bastards : 101 of the Worst Miscreants and Misdeeds from Ancient Sumer to the Enlightenment (2011) by Brian Thornton, p. 134; his mother was also murdered, their bodies beheaded, dragged through Rome, and dumped into the Tiber river. Variants: Let my mother be, leave her alone! As quoted in [http://www.prisonersofeternity.co.uk/elagabalus-queen-of-rome/ "Elagabalus: Queen of Rome" by Kim Seabrook at Prisoners of Eternity (2013)]

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