Frases de John Desmond Bernal
John Desmond Bernal
Fecha de nacimiento: 10. Mayo 1901
Fecha de muerte: 15. Septiembre 1971
John Desmond Bernal fue un científico irlandés, nacido en Nenagh, en el Condado de Tipperary, destacado por su labor pionera en el ámbito de la cristalografía de rayos X.
Frases John Desmond Bernal
„Finalmente, la conciencia en sí misma puede terminar o desaparecer en una humanidad que se ha vuelto completamente eterealizada, perdiendo el tejido organismo, convirtiéndose en masas de átomos en el espacio que se comunican por radiación y, en última instancia, tal vez resolviéndose por completo en la luz. Eso puede ser un final o un comienzo, pero desde aquí está fuera de la vista.“
Original: «Finally, consciousness itself may end or vanish in a humanity that has become completely etherealized, losing the close-knit organism, becoming masses of atoms in space communicating by radiation, and ultimately perhaps resolving itself entirely into light. That may be an end or a beginning, but from here it is out of sight».
Fuente: The End Of Science: Facing The Limits Of Knowledge In The Twilight Of The Scientific Age. Autor John Horgan. Editorial Hachette UK, 2015. ISBN 9780465050857. https://books.google.es/books?id=81U4DgAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=The+End+Of+Science:+Facing+The+Limits+Of+Knowledge+In+The+Twilight+Of+The+...&hl=es&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiTqaqL-cjgAhVNzRoKHXJDA7cQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=Finally%2C%20consciousness%20itself%20may%20end%20or%20vanish%20in%20a%20humanity%20that%20has%20become%20completely%20etherealized%2C%20losing%20the%20close-knit%20&f=false
„La mayoría no está restringida ni obstaculizada por métodos razonables para determinar sus principales áreas de trabajo. Aceptan y responden al equipo que trabaja en la escala necesaria para lograr un progreso medible con los diversos problemas.“
Original: «The majority are not constrained nor hampered by reasonable methods of determining their main areas of work. They accept and respond to team working on the scale needed to make measurable progress with the various problems».
Fuente: Chemistry and Industry, Parte 2. Colaborador Society of Chemical Industry (Great Britain). Editorial Society of Chemical Industry, 1976. p. 1.015.
Fuente: The Social Function of Science (1939), p. 260
„The problem of the re-organization of science will not be solved by administrative or financial changes. It will also be necessary to reorganise in a most comprehensive way the whole apparatus of scientific communication.“
Fuente: The Social Function of Science (1939), p. 292
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„At different stages in the educational process different changes are required. In schools the chief need is for a general change in the attitude towards science, which should be from the beginning an integral part and not a mere addition, often an optional addition, to the curriculum. Science should be taught not merely as a subject but should come into all subjects. Its importance in history and in modern life should be pointed out and illustrated. The old contrast, often amounting to hostility, between scientific and humane subjects need to be broken down and replaced by a scientific humanism. At the same time, the teaching of science proper requires to be humanized. The dry and factual presentation requires to be transformed, not by any appeal to mystical theory, but by emphasizing the living and dramatic character of scientific advance itself. Here the teaching of the history of science, not isolated as at present, but in close relation to general history teaching, would serve to correct the existing atmosphere of scientific dogmatism. It would show at the same time how secure are the conquests of science in the control they give over natural processes and how insecure and provisional, however necessary, are the rational interpretations, the theories and hypotheses put forward at each stage. Past history by itself is not enough, the latest developments of science should not be excluded because they have not yet passed the test of time. It is absolutely necessary to emphasize the fact that science not only has changed but is continually changing, that it is an activity and not merely a body of facts. Throughout, the social implications of science, the powers that it puts into men's hands, the uses they could make of them and those which they in fact do, should be brought out and made real by a reference to immediate experience of ordinary life.“
Fuente: The Social Function of Science (1939), p. 246 : How such a method of teaching could become an integral part of general education is sketched by H. G. Wells' British Association address, "The Informative Content of Education," reprinted in World Brain (Mathuen, 1938).
„There are two futures, the future of desire and the future of fate, and man's reason has never learnt to separate them. Desire, the strongest thing in the world, is itself all future, and it is not for nothing that in all the religions the motive is always forwards to an endless futurity of bliss or annihilation. Now that religion gives place to science the paradiscial future of the soul fades before the Utopian future of the species, and still the future rules. But always there is, on the other side, destiny, that which inevitably will happen, a future here concerned not as the other was with man and his desires, but blindly and inexorably with the whole universe of space and time. The Buddhist seeks to escape from the Wheel of Life and Death, the Christian passes through them in the faith of another world to come, the modern reformer, as unrealistic but less imaginative, demands his chosen future in this world of men.“
Fuente: The world, the flesh & the devil (1929) (1969), p. 3. Intro of part I. The Future ( online http://www.marxists.org/archive/bernal/works/1920s/soul/ch01.htm)
„The central industry of modern civilisation, tending, because of its control over materials, to spread into and ultimately incorporate older industries such as mining, smelting, oil- refining, textiles, rubber, building, and even agriculture in respect to fertilizers and food processing.“
— John Desmond Bernal, libro Science in History
Bernal (1969) Science in History. Vol 3. p. 823
„[The goal of efficiency was] a system in which all relevant information would be available to each research worker in an amplitude proportional to its degree of relevance.“
Fuente: The Social Function of Science (1939), p. 249
„The psychology of a complex mind must differ almost as much from that of a simple, mechanized mind as its psychology would from ours; because something that must underlie and perhaps be even greater than sex is involved.“
Fuente: The world, the flesh & the devil (1929) (1969), p. 66
„In the decade after the war Freud’s theories dominated the narrow circles of British intellectuals. His psycho-analysis was accepted warmly for many reasons. It was new and exciting, it was shocking, it debunked religion and morals, it promised an internal liberation from all restraints. Nevertheless, it was essentially a creed of escape into an inner world of complexes and repressions and away from social and economic realities.“
Bernal (1937) "Psycho-Analysis and Marxism" in: The Labour Monthly, Vol. 19, July 1937, No. 7, pp. 435-437. Online here http://www.marxists.org/archive/bernal/works/1930s/psycho.htm on Marxists Internet Archive (2010).
„If Engels had not been the constant companion in arms of Marx in the revolutionary struggles of the 19th century, there is no doubt that he would be remembered chiefly as one of the foremost scientist-philosophers of the century. It was an ironical tribute paid to the correctness of his views as to the relations between politics and ideology that he suffered complete neglect from the scientists of the Victorian age. But time now has taken its revenge, and Engels’ contemporary views on 19th century science seem to us now in the 20th far more fresh and filled with understanding than those of the professional philosophers of science of his day, who for the most part are completely forgotten, while the few that linger on, such as Lange and Herbert Spencer, are only quoted as examples of the limitations of their times.“
Bernal (1930s) "Labour Monthly Pamphlets, No. 6" (No date). Online ( here http://www.marxists.org/archive/bernal/works/1930s/engels.htm) on Marxists Internet Archive (2008).
„No one, who knows what the difficulties are, now believes that the crisis of physics is likely to be resolved by any simple trick or modification of existing theories. Something radical is needed, and it will have to go far wider than physics. A new world outlook is being forged, but much experiment and argument will be needed before it can take a definitive form. It must be coherent, it must include and illuminate the new knowledge of fundamental particles and their complex fields, it must resolve the paradoxes of wave and particle, it must make the world inside the atom and the wide spaces of the universe equally intelligible. It must have a different dimension from all previous world views, and include in itself an explanation of development and the origin of new things. In this it will fall naturally in line with the converging tendencies of the biological and social sciences in which a regular pattern blends with their evolutionary history.“
J.D. Bernal (1959/1969) Science in history Vol 3. p. 862; cited in: Ludwig von Bertalanffy (1968) General System Theory. p. 5-6
Attributed to Bernal in: Gary Werskey (1978) The visible college. p. 137