Frases de John Kenneth Galbraith

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John Kenneth Galbraith

Fecha de nacimiento: 15. Octubre 1908
Fecha de muerte: 29. Abril 2006

John Kenneth Galbraith fue un economista canadiense

Galbraith no responde al estereotipo de economista norteamericano, por sus ideas iconoclastas sobre la economía y prácticas de sus pares. Su mayor preocupación no era el análisis econométrico o teoría económica, sino analizar las consecuencias de la política económica en la sociedad y la economía política, en una forma accesible y eliminando gran parte del tecnicismo utilizado por los economistas[cita requerida].

Autor de numerosos libros y artículos, fue profesor de la Universidad de Harvard desde 1949. Su obra incluye elementos del institucionalismo crítico, pues da un papel central a las instituciones y, en particular, a las organizaciones industriales con una política económica propia del keynesiano más progresista.

Durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, Galbraith trabajó en la Oficina de Administración de Precios. Después de la guerra se le encargó el estudio sobre bombardeos estratégicos de los Estados Unidos y sus aliados, concluyendo que los bombardeos no acortaron la guerra, declaración que le costó enemistades con algunos altos cargos de la administración[cita requerida]. Posteriormente, se hizo consejero de las administraciones de posguerra en Alemania y Japón.

En 1949, Galbraith fue nombrado profesor de economía en Harvard. Fue también editor de la revista Fortune.

Lo principal de su obra se puede ejemplificar en su famosa y clásica trilogía. En su primera gran obra, Capitalismo americano, señala que las grandes corporaciones han desplazado a las pequeñas o negocios de carácter familar, y, como consecuencia, los modelos de competencia perfecta no pueden ser aplicados en la economía de EE.UU. Una forma para contrarrestar ese poder, según Galbraith, es el surgimiento de grandes sindicatos. En La sociedad opulenta , contrasta la opulencia del sector privado con la avaricia ejercida sobre el sector público. Con ello demuestra que EE.UU., en los años cincuenta, era el ejemplo de un país con una economía en crecimiento, pero que en su interior existían grandes desigualdades sociales. Finalmente, en El nuevo Estado industrial señala que las grandes corporaciones dominan el mercado de EEUU. Esto, como resultado de su gran crecimiento productivo y el nivel en sus operaciones, que les permite controlar sus mercados.

Amigo del ex presidente John F. Kennedy, fue nombrado embajador de los Estados Unidos en India de 1961 a 1963. Allí intentó ayudar al gobierno indio a desarrollar su economía. Durante su estancia, procuró ayuda también a uno de los primeros departamentos de ciencias de la informática, el Instituto Indio de Tecnología en Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh.

Galbraith falleció a los 97 años de edad.

Su hijo James K. Galbraith también es un destacado economista.

Frases John Kenneth Galbraith

„Aunque todo lo demás falle, siempre podemos asegurarnos la inmortalidad cometiendo algún error espectacular.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith
Source: Herrera Carles, Humberto. 1500 Frases, pensamientos para la vida. Editor Lulu.com. ISBN 9781105216565. p. 83.

„La visión convencional sirve para protegernos del doloroso trabajo de pensar.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith
Original: «The conventional view serves to protect us from the painful job of thinking». Source: Understanding Research, Science and Technology Parks: Global Best Practices: Report of a Symposium. Autores National Research Council, Policy and Global Affairs, Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy, Committee on Comparative Innovation Policy: Best Practice for the 21st Century. Editor Charles W. Wessner. Editorial National Academies Press, 2009. ISBN 9780309145466. p. 81. https://books.google.es/books?id=w741v2ttOYAC&pg=PA81&dq=The+conventional+view+serves+to+protect+us+from+the+painful+job+of+thinking&hl=es&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwicqMSymtzgAhVLxoUKHVMpAKEQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=The%20conventional%20view%20serves%20to%20protect%20us%20from%20the%20painful%20job%20of%20thinking&f=false

„El conservador moderno se dedica a uno de los ejercicios más antiguos del hombre en la filosofía moral; es decir, a la búsqueda de una justificación moral superior para el egoísmo.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith
Original: «The modern conservative is engaged in one of man's oldest exercises in moral philosophy; that is, the search for a superior moral justification for selfishness». Source: Osenton, Tom. Boomer Destiny: Leading the U.S. through the Worst Crisis Since the Great Depression. Edición reimpresa. Editorial ABC-CLIO, 2009. ISBN 9780313356056. p. 103. https://books.google.es/books?id=9EXyCAAAQBAJ&pg=PA103&dq=The+modern+conservative+is+engaged+in+one+of+man%27s+oldest+exercises+in+moral+philosophy;+that+is,+the+search+for+a+superior+moral+justification+for+selfishness&hl=es&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiwr6arm9zgAhXcAmMBHbZmDukQ6AEIODAC#v=onepage&q&f=false

„Me preocupa nuestra tendencia a invertir en exceso en las cosas y a invertir menos en las personas.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith
Original: «I am worried about our tendency to over invest in things and under invest in people». Source: Harvard Alumni Bulletin, Volumen 61. Contribuidores Harvard Alumni Association, Associated Harvard Clubs. Editor Harvard Alumni Association, 1958. p. 391.

„El proceso mediante el cual los bancos crean dinero, es tan simple, que la mente lo rechaza.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith
Source: ¿Cómo salir de pobre y no morir en el intento? - Finanzas personales. Autor y editor Miquel J. Pavon Besalu. ISBN 9781291043365. p. 173. https://books.google.es/books?id=4BKF9D-b3t8C&pg=PA173&dq=El+proceso+mediante+el+cual+los+bancos+crean+dinero,+es+tan+simple,+que+la+mente+lo+rechaza.+John+Kenneth+Galbraith&hl=es&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwinltymmdzgAhWK2OAKHeSUAdQQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=El%20proceso%20mediante%20el%20cual%20los%20bancos%20crean%20dinero%2C%20es%20tan%20simple%2C%20que%20la%20mente%20lo%20rechaza.%20John%20Kenneth%20Galbraith&f=false

„Para manipular eficazmente a la gente es necesario hacer creer a todos que nadie les manipula.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith
Source: Bermejo, Pedro. Neuroeconomía: Cómo piensan las empresas. Acción Empresarial. LID Editorial, 2014. ISBN 9788483569610. https://books.google.es/books?id=6pmTBQAAQBAJ&pg=PT22&dq=Para+manipular+eficazmente+a+la+gente+es+necesario+hacer+creer+a+todos+que+nadie+les+manipula.+John+Kenneth+Galbraith&hl=es&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiK35znmdzgAhVEx4UKHXeUA-4Q6AEIMzAC#v=onepage&q=Para%20manipular%20eficazmente%20a%20la%20gente%20es%20necesario%20hacer%20creer%20a%20todos%20que%20nadie%20les%20manipula.%20John%20Kenneth%20Galbraith&f=false

„Bajo el capitalismo, el hombre explota al hombre; mientras que bajo el socialismo es justo lo contrario.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith
Original: «Under capitalism, man exploits man; while under socialism just the reverse is true». Source: Sawhney, Clifford. Book of Common and Uncommon Proverbs. Editorial Pustak Mahal, 2004. ISBN 9788122308549. https://books.google.es/books?id=NvyL-d3lcwUC&pg=PT100&dq=Under+capitalism,+man+exploits+man;+while+under+socialism+just+the+reverse+is+true&hl=es&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjgqJGrndzgAhVpAWMBHc7OD-oQ6AEIKzAA#v=onepage&q=Under%20capitalism%2C%20man%20exploits%20man%3B%20while%20under%20socialism%20just%20the%20reverse%20is%20true&f=false

„El estudio del tema del dinero, por encima de otros campos económicos, es el tema en el cual la complejidad se utiliza para disfrazar la verdad o para evadirla, en vez de revelarla.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith
Original: «The study of money, above all other fields in economics, is the one in which complexity is used to disguise truth or to evade truth, not to reveal it». Source: LoCascio, Vincent R. The Monetary Elite Vs. Gold's Honest Discipline. Editorial Weltanschauung Financial Press, 2005. ISBN 9780976842705. p. 21. https://books.google.es/books?id=BVDVgklbzqgC&pg=PA53&dq=ISBN%09097684270X,+9780976842705&hl=es&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiEh6CVmNzgAhVHyxoKHbXMCXUQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=The%20study%20of%20money%2C%20above%20all%20other%20fields%20in%20economics%2C%20is%20the%20one%20in%20which%20complexity%20is%20used%20to%20disguise%20truth%20or%20to%20evade%20truth%2C%20not%20to%20reveal%20it.&f=false

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„I react pragmatically. Where the market works, I'm for that. Where the government is necessary, I'm for that. I'm deeply suspicious of somebody who says, "I'm in favor of privatization," or, "I'm deeply in favor of public ownership." I'm in favor of whatever works in the particular case.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith
Booknotes interview (1994), Context: I react to what is necessary. I would like to eschew any formula. There are some things where the government is absolutely inevitable, which we cannot get along without comprehensive state action. But there are many things — producing consumer goods, producing a wide range of entertainment, producing a wide level of cultural activity — where the market system, which independent activity is also important, so I react pragmatically. Where the market works, I'm for that. Where the government is necessary, I'm for that. I'm deeply suspicious of somebody who says, "I'm in favor of privatization," or, "I'm deeply in favor of public ownership." I'm in favor of whatever works in the particular case.

„To add to the technostructure is to increase its power in the enterprise.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith, libro The New Industrial State
The New Industrial State (1967), Chapter XXI, Section 2, p. 236

„The Senate has unlimited debate; in the House, debate is ruthlessly circumscribed. There is frequent discussion as to which technique most effectively frustrates democratic process.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith
The United States (1971), Context: The Senate has unlimited debate; in the House, debate is ruthlessly circumscribed. There is frequent discussion as to which technique most effectively frustrates democratic process. However, a more important antidote to American democracy is American gerontocracy. The positions of eminence and authority in Congress are allotted in accordance with length of service, regardless of quality. Superficial observers have long criticized the United States for making a fetish of youth. This is unfair. Uniquely among modern organs of public and private administration, its national legislature rewards senility.

„When the modern corporation acquires power over markets, power in the community, power over the state and power over belief, it is a political instrument, different in degree but not in kind from the state itself.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith
Power and the Useful Economist (1973), Context: When the modern corporation acquires power over markets, power in the community, power over the state and power over belief, it is a political instrument, different in degree but not in kind from the state itself. To hold otherwise — to deny the political character of the modern corporation — is not merely to avoid the reality. It is to disguise the reality. The victims of that disguise are those we instruct in error. The beneficiaries are the institutions whose power we so disguise. Let there be no question: economics, so long as it is thus taught, becomes, however unconsciously, a part of the arrangement by which the citizen or student is kept from seeing how he or she is, or will be, governed.

„Total physical and mental inertia are highly agreeable, much more so than we allow ourselves to imagine.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith
Context: Total physical and mental inertia are highly agreeable, much more so than we allow ourselves to imagine. A beach not only permits such inertia but enforces it, thus neatly eliminating all problems of guilt. It is now the only place in our overly active world that does. Foreword to The Beach Book by Gloria Steinem (1963); reprinted in Galbraith's A View from the Stands (1986)

„We now in the United States have more security guards for the rich than we have police services for the poor districts.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith
Context: We now in the United States have more security guards for the rich than we have police services for the poor districts. If you're looking for personal security, far better to move to the suburbs than to pay taxes in New York. The Guardian [UK] (23 May 1992)

„Few can believe that suffering, especially by others, is in vain.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith
The Age of Uncertainty (1977), Context: Few can believe that suffering, especially by others, is in vain. Anything that is disagreeable must surely have beneficial economic effects. Chapter 7, p. 211

„To pay off the debt was to destroy the money supply.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith
Money: Whence It Came, Where It Went (1975), Context: In numerous years following the war the Federal government ran a heavy surplus. It could not pay off it's debt, retire its securities, because to do so meant there would be no bonds to back the national bank notes. To pay off the debt was to destroy the money supply. Chapter VIII, The Great Compromise, p. 90

„In the usual (though certainly not in every) public decision on economic policy, the choice is between courses that are almost equally good or equally bad. It is the narrowest decisions that are most ardently debated.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith
Context: In the usual (though certainly not in every) public decision on economic policy, the choice is between courses that are almost equally good or equally bad. It is the narrowest decisions that are most ardently debated. If the world is lucky enough to enjoy peace, it may even one day make the discovery, to the horror of doctrinaire free-enterprisers and doctrinaire planners alike, that what is called capitalism and what is called socialism are both capable of working quite well. "The American Economy: Its Substance and Myth," quoted in Years of the Modern (1949), edited by J.W. Chase

„People are the common denominator of progress.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith
Context: People are the common denominator of progress. So, paucis verbis, no improvement is possible with unimproved people, and advance is certain when people are liberated and educated. It would be wrong to dismiss the importance of roads, railroads, power plants, mills, and the other familiar furniture of economic development. At some stages of development — the stage that India and Pakistan have reached, for example — they are central to the strategy of development. But we are coming to realize, I think, that there is a certain sterility in economic monuments that stand alone in a sea of illiteracy. Conquest of illiteracy comes first. Economic Development (1964), ch. 2

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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