Frases de Jonas Salk

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Jonas Salk

Fecha de nacimiento: 28. Octubre 1914
Fecha de muerte: 23. Junio 1995

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Jonas Edward Salk [2]​ fue un investigador médico y virólogo estadounidense, principalmente reconocido por su aporte a la vacuna contra la poliomielitis. Nació en la ciudad de Nueva York, proveniente de familias inmigrantes ruso-judías. Si bien sus padres no poseían una educación formal, estaban decididos a ver triunfar a sus hijos. En la Escuela de Medicina de la Universidad de Nueva York se destacó no solo por su destreza académica, sino porque también decidió realizar investigaciones médicas en vez de convertirse en médico.

Hasta 1955, cuando se presentó la vacuna Salk, la poliomielitis se consideraba el problema de salud pública más peligroso en los Estados Unidos de posguerra. Las epidemias anuales eran cada vez más devastadoras; la de 1952 fue el peor brote de la historia de la nación. De los casi 58 000 casos reportados ese año,[3]​ 3145 fallecieron y 21 269 quedaron afectados por parálisis,[3]​ siendo niños la mayor parte de las víctimas. Según el historiador William O'Neill, «la reacción pública fue similar a la de una plaga. Los ciudadanos de las áreas urbanas pasaban aterrorizados cada verano, la época del año en que regresaba este espantoso visitante». Como resultado, los científicos se embarcaron en una carrera frenética para encontrar un tratamiento o una forma de prevenirla. El presidente de los Estados Unidos Franklin D. Roosevelt fue la víctima más reconocida del mundo de esta enfermedad y fundó la organización que patrocinó el desarrollo de una vacuna.

En 1947, Salk aceptó un nombramiento de la Escuela de Medicina de la Universidad de Pittsburgh. Al año siguiente, emprendió un proyecto creado por la Fundación Nacional para la Parálisis Infantil para determinar el número de tipos diferentes de virus de la poliomielitis. Salk vislumbró una oportunidad para extender este proyecto hasta llegar a desarrollar una vacuna contra la polio, y, junto con las investigaciones que había llevado a cabo, se dedicó por completo a este trabajo durante los siguientes siete años. El comité seleccionado para probar la vacuna de Salk fue, según O'Neill, «el programa más elaborado de su tipo en la historia, con veinte mil médicos y agentes de la salud pública, sesenta y cuatro mil académicos y veinte mil voluntarios». Más de 1 800 000 niños en edad escolar formaron parte del comité de prueba.[4]​ Cuando se hizo pública la noticia del éxito de la vacuna, el 12 de abril de 1955, Salk fue aclamado como un «trabajador milagroso» y el día «se convirtió casi en una fiesta nacional». Había llevado a cabo su tarea únicamente para desarrollar una vacuna segura y efectiva lo más rápido posible, sin interesarse en su beneficio personal. Cuando le preguntaron en una entrevista televisiva quién poseía la patente de la vacuna, Salk respondió: «No hay patente. ¿Se puede patentar el sol?».[5]​[6]​

En 1960, fundó el Instituto Salk de Estudios Biológicos en La Jolla, California, el cual en la actualidad es un centro para la investigación médica y científica. Continuó coordinando investigaciones y publicando libros, incluyendo Man Unfolding , The Survival of the Wisest , World Population and Human Values: A New Reality y Anatomy of Reality: Merging of Intuition and Reason . En sus últimos años el Dr. Salk se dedicó a tratar de crear una vacuna contra el sida.[7]​

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Frases Jonas Salk

„I speak about universal evolution and teleological evolution, because I think the process of evolution reflects the wisdom of nature.“

— Jonas Salk
Context: I speak about universal evolution and teleological evolution, because I think the process of evolution reflects the wisdom of nature. I see the need for wisdom to become operative. We need to try to put all of these things together in what I call an evolutionary philosophy of our time.

„That's how we continue on, and will improve our lot in life, solve the problems that arise. Partly out of necessity, partly out of this drive to improve.“

— Jonas Salk
Context: I have come to associate a kind of success that we are referring to, to individuals who have a combination of attributes that are often associated with creativity. In a way they are mutants, they are different from others. And they follow their own drummer. We know what that means. And are we all like that? We are not like that. If you are, then it would be well to recognize that there were others before you. And, people like that are not very happy or content, until they are allowed to express, or they can express what's in them to express. It's that driving force that I think is like the process of evolution working on us, and in us, and with us, and through us. That's how we continue on, and will improve our lot in life, solve the problems that arise. Partly out of necessity, partly out of this drive to improve.

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„I look upon ourselves as partners in all of this, and that each of us contributes and does what he can do best.“

— Jonas Salk
Context: I look upon ourselves as partners in all of this, and that each of us contributes and does what he can do best. And so I see not a top rung and a bottom rung — I see all this horizontally — and I see this as part of a matrix. And I see every human being as having a purpose, a destiny, if you like. And what my hope is that we can find some way to fulfill the biological potential, if you like — the destiny that exists in each of us — and find ways and means to provide such opportunities for everyone. Now at the moment the world is suffering from large numbers of people who have no purpose in life — for whom there is no opportunity — and that's sad.

„I think of evolution as an error-making and error-correcting process, and we are constantly learning from experience.“

— Jonas Salk
Context: The idea of being constructive, creative, positive, in trying to bring out the best in one's own self and the best in others follows from what I've just been saying. Again, I repeat my belief in us, in ourselves, as the product of the process of evolution, and part of the process itself. I think of evolution as an error-making and error-correcting process, and we are constantly learning from experience. It's the need to dedicate one's self in that way, to one's own self, and to choose an activity or life that is of value not only to yourself but to others as well.

„I have come to associate a kind of success that we are referring to, to individuals who have a combination of attributes that are often associated with creativity. In a way they are mutants, they are different from others. And they follow their own drummer.“

— Jonas Salk
Context: I have come to associate a kind of success that we are referring to, to individuals who have a combination of attributes that are often associated with creativity. In a way they are mutants, they are different from others. And they follow their own drummer. We know what that means. And are we all like that? We are not like that. If you are, then it would be well to recognize that there were others before you. And, people like that are not very happy or content, until they are allowed to express, or they can express what's in them to express. It's that driving force that I think is like the process of evolution working on us, and in us, and with us, and through us. That's how we continue on, and will improve our lot in life, solve the problems that arise. Partly out of necessity, partly out of this drive to improve.

„What you see in living systems, and in genetic systems, is that the genes are already there, having arisen in the course of time, and when they are needed they become activated. If they had to be invented, the time would be too late.“

— Jonas Salk
Context: What you see in living systems, and in genetic systems, is that the genes are already there, having arisen in the course of time, and when they are needed they become activated. If they had to be invented, the time would be too late. By the same token, I think that the people who are needed to help guide the future already exist. They simply need to recognize this in themselves, react to the opportunities that prevail, and also be valued and be encouraged. It's that very large, and as yet amorphous, rung that is of interest to me. I hope to articulate this, and see to what extent it makes sense to others as well.

„The art of science is as important as so-called technical science. You need both. It's this combination that must be recognized and acknowledged and valued.“

— Jonas Salk
Context: Reason alone will not serve. Intuition alone can be improved by reason, but reason alone without intuition can easily lead the wrong way. They both are necessary. The way I like to put it is that when I have an intuition about something, I send it over to the reason department. Then after I've checked it out in the reason department, I send it back to the intuition department to make sure that it's still all right. That's how my mind works, and that's how I work. That's why I think that there is both an art and a science to what we do. The art of science is as important as so-called technical science. You need both. It's this combination that must be recognized and acknowledged and valued.

„Well, the people, I would say. There is no patent. Could you patent the sun?“

— Jonas Salk
Context: Edward R. Murrow: Who owns the patent on this vaccine? Jonas Salk: Well, the people, I would say. There is no patent. Could you patent the sun? CBS Television interview, on See It Now (12 April 1955); quoted in Shots in the Dark : The Wayward Search for an AIDS Vaccine (2001) by Jon Cohen

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„Now, some people might look at something and let it go by, because they don't recognize the pattern and the significance. It's the sensitivity to pattern recognition that seems to me to be of great importance. It's a matter of being able to find meaning, whether it's positive or negative, in whatever you encounter.“

— Jonas Salk
Context: Now, some people might look at something and let it go by, because they don't recognize the pattern and the significance. It's the sensitivity to pattern recognition that seems to me to be of great importance. It's a matter of being able to find meaning, whether it's positive or negative, in whatever you encounter. It's like a journey. It's like finding the paths that will allow you to go forward, or that path that has a block that tells you to start over again or do something else.

„I have the impression that the new generation of young people, are coming up on the scene with a sense "ancestorhood", and with more wisdom than was evident before.“

— Jonas Salk
Context: I have the impression that the new generation of young people, are coming up on the scene with a sense "ancestorhood", and with more wisdom than was evident before. I think this comes about as a matter of necessity — Almost as if there is something in us that is innate, something inherent in us, that is destined for a longer term, rather than a shorter term future.

„I see the triumph of good over evil as a manifestation of the error-correcting process of evolution.“

— Jonas Salk
Context: I judge things from an evolutionary perspective — "How does this serve and contribute to the process of our own evolution?" — rather than think of good and evil in moral terms. I see the triumph of good over evil as a manifestation of the error-correcting process of evolution.

„My life is pretty well at peace, and the profession is more of an avocation. It's a calling, if you like, rather than a job. I do what I feel impelled to do, as an artist would.“

— Jonas Salk
Context: My life is pretty well at peace, and the profession is more of an avocation. It's a calling, if you like, rather than a job. I do what I feel impelled to do, as an artist would. Scientists function in the same way. I see all these as creative activities, as all part of the process of discovery. Perhaps that's one of the characteristics of what I call the evolvers, any subset of the population who keep things moving in a positive, creative, constructive way, revealing the truth and beauty that exists in life and in nature.

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„When things get bad enough, then something happens to correct the course.“

— Jonas Salk
Context: When things get bad enough, then something happens to correct the course. And it's for that reason that I speak about evolution as an error-making and an error-correcting process. And if we can be ever so much better — ever so much slightly better — at error correcting than at error making, then we'll make it.

„Reason alone will not serve. Intuition alone can be improved by reason, but reason alone without intuition can easily lead the wrong way. They both are necessary.“

— Jonas Salk
Context: Reason alone will not serve. Intuition alone can be improved by reason, but reason alone without intuition can easily lead the wrong way. They both are necessary. The way I like to put it is that when I have an intuition about something, I send it over to the reason department. Then after I've checked it out in the reason department, I send it back to the intuition department to make sure that it's still all right. That's how my mind works, and that's how I work. That's why I think that there is both an art and a science to what we do. The art of science is as important as so-called technical science. You need both. It's this combination that must be recognized and acknowledged and valued.

„I am interested both in nature, and in the human side of nature, and how the two can be brought together, and effectively used.“

— Jonas Salk
Context: Why do I see things differently from the way other people see them? Why do I pursue the questions that I pursue, even if others regard them as, as they say, "controversial?" Which merely means that they have a difference of opinion. They see things differently. I am interested both in nature, and in the human side of nature, and how the two can be brought together, and effectively used.

„What is … important is that we — number one: Learn to live with each other. Number two: try to bring out the best in each other.“

— Jonas Salk
Context: What is … important is that we — number one: Learn to live with each other. Number two: try to bring out the best in each other. The best from the best, and the best from those who, perhaps, might not have the same endowment. And so this bespeaks an entirely different philosophy — a different way of life — a different kind of relationship — where the object is not to put down the other, but to raise up the other.

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