Frases de Andrew Jackson

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Andrew Jackson

Fecha de nacimiento: 15. Marzo 1767
Fecha de muerte: 8. Junio 1845

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Andrew Jackson fue un estadista estadounidense que fue el séptimo presidente de los Estados Unidos . Nació al término de la era colonial en algún lugar de la frontera todavía no marcada de Carolina del Norte y Carolina del Sur. Provenía de una familia recién emigrada escocesa e irlandesa de recursos medios. Durante la Guerra de Independencia de los Estados Unidos, Jackson, cuya familia apoyaba la causa de la revolución, sirvió de mensajero. A la edad de 13 años fue capturado y maltratado por los ingleses, lo que lo convierte en el único presidente estadounidense que ha sido prisionero de guerra. Tiempo después llegó a ser abogado. También fue elegido a la oficina congresional, primero a la Cámara de Representantes y dos veces al Senado.

En 1801, Jackson fue nombrado coronel en la milicia de Tennessee, lugar que llegó a ser su base política igual que su base militar. Fue dueño de cientos de esclavos que trabajaban en su hacienda conocida como "Hermitage Plantation". En 1806 mató a un hombre en un duelo sobre un asunto de honor que involucraba a su esposa Rachel. Llegó a tener fama nacional por medio del papel que llevó a cabo en la Guerra anglo-estadounidense de 1812, cuando ganó una victoria importante en contra de una invasión británica en la batalla de Nueva Orleans aunque ya se había firmado el Tratado de Gante, algo que desconocían todos los involucrados en la batalla.[1]​ En respuesta al conflicto con el pueblo seminola en la Florida Española, invadió el territorio en 1818. Esto fue la causa directa de la Primera Guerra Seminola y el Tratado de Adams-Onís de 1819, el cual transfirió la Florida de España a Estados Unidos.

Después de ser elegido al Senado, Jackson decidió entrar en la elección presidencial de 1824. Aunque ganó más votos electorales además del voto popular que los otros tres contrincantes, perdió en la Cámara de Representantes ante John Quincy Adams, supuestamente por un "trato corrupto" entre Adams y el presidente de la Cámara de Representantes Henry Clay, quien también era un candidato. Los partidarios de Jackson entonces fundaron lo que llegó a ser el Partido Demócrata. Entró a la elección de 1828 en contra de Adams. Usando su influencia del Oeste y con apoyo nuevo de Virginia y Nueva York, ganó con una victoria aplastante. Culpó de la muerte de su esposa Rachel a los partidarios de Adams, quienes la habían llamado bígama.

Como presidente, Jackson se enfrentó a la amenaza de secesión de Carolina del sur por la ley de "Tarifa de Abominaciones", ley que había sido aprobada por la administración de Adams. En contraste con varios de sus sucesores inmediatos, él le negó al estado el derecho de secederse de la Unión y el derecho de nulificar una ley federal. La crisis de nulificación se calmó cuando la ley fue cambiada y Jackson amenazó a Carolina del Sur con una acción militar si el estado intentara secederse.

En anticipación de las elecciones de 1832, el Congreso, dirigido por Henry Clay, intentó reautorizar al Segundo Banco de los Estados Unidos cuatro años antes de que se venciera su título. Manteniendo su palabra de descentralizar la economía, Jackson vetó la renovación del título, algo que puso en peligro su reelección. Pero al explicar su decisión como defensor del pueblo en contra de los banqueros ricos, fácilmente pudo derrotar a Clay en las elecciones ese año. Él efectivamente pudo desmantelar el banco para cuando se venció su título en 1836. Sus luchas con el Congreso se personificaron en la rivalidad personal que tenía con Clay, quien era del disgusto de Jackson y quien dirigía la oposición desde el recién creado Partido Whig. La presidencia de Jackson marcó el comienzo de la ascendencia del "spoil system" en la política estadounidense. También es conocido por haber firmado el "Indian Removal Act" ley que reubicó un número de tribus nativas a la región sur del territorio indio .

Jackson apoyó la exitosa campaña de su vicepresidente Martin Van Buren para la presidencia en 1836. Trabajó para apoderar al Partido Demócrata y ayudó a su amigo James K. Polk a ganar las elecciones de 1844.

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Frases Andrew Jackson

„As Americans, your country looks with confidence on her adopted children, for a valorous support, as a faithful return for the advantages enjoyed under her mild and equitable government.“

—  Andrew Jackson
Context: As sons of freedom you are now called upon to defend your most inestimable blessing. As Americans, your country looks with confidence on her adopted children, for a valorous support, as a faithful return for the advantages enjoyed under her mild and equitable government. In New Orleans, Louisiana, 1814. As quoted in The Life of Andrew Jackson https://web.archive.org/web/20111029143820/http://home.nas.com/lopresti/ps7.htm (1967), by John Spencer Bassett, Archon Books. p. 156-157.

„I am constrained to decline the designation of any period or mode as proper for the public manifestation of this reliance. I could not do otherwise without transcending the limits prescribed by the Constitution for the President and without feeling that I might in some degree disturb the security which religion nowadays enjoys in this country in its complete separation from the political concerns of the General Government.“

—  Andrew Jackson
Context: While I concur with the Synod in the efficacy of prayer, and in the hope that our country may be preserved from the attacks of pestilence "and that the judgments now abroad in the earth may be sanctified to the nations," I am constrained to decline the designation of any period or mode as proper for the public manifestation of this reliance. I could not do otherwise without transcending the limits prescribed by the Constitution for the President and without feeling that I might in some degree disturb the security which religion nowadays enjoys in this country in its complete separation from the political concerns of the General Government. Response to request from a church organization of New York, on refusing to proclaim a national day of fasting and prayer, in relation to an outbreak of cholera. Correspondence 4:447 (1832); quoted in A Subaltern's Furlough : Descriptive of Scenes in Various Parts of the United States, Upper and Lower Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia during the Summer and Autumn of 1832 (1833) by Edward Thomas Coke, Ch. 9, p. 145 http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/lhbtn:@field(DOCID+@lit(lhbtn0265adiv14))

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„To say that any State may at pleasure secede from the Union, is to say that the United States are not a nation“

—  Andrew Jackson
Context: To say that any State may at pleasure secede from the Union, is to say that the United States are not a nation because it would be a solecism to contend that any part of a nation might dissolve its connection with the other parts, to their injury or ruin, without committing any offense. Secession, like any other revolutionary act, may be morally justified by the extremity of oppression; but to call it a constitutional right, is confounding the meaning of terms, and can only be done through gross error, or to deceive those who are willing to assert a right, but would pause before they made a revolution, or incur the penalties consequent upon a failure. Proclamation against the Nullification Ordinance of South Carolina (11 December 1832)

„Every good citizen makes his country's honor his own, and cherishes it not only as precious but as sacred.“

—  Andrew Jackson
Context: Every good citizen makes his country's honor his own, and cherishes it not only as precious but as sacred. He is willing to risk his life in its defense and is conscious that he gains protection while he gives it. Excellent Quotations for Home and School Selected for the use of Teachers and Pupils (1890) by Julia B. Hoitt, p. 218.

„There are no necessary evils in government. Its evils exist only in its abuses. If it would confine itself to equal protection, and, as Heaven does its rains, shower its favors alike on the high and the low, the rich and the poor, it would be an unqualified blessing.“

—  Andrew Jackson
Context: It is to be regretted that the rich and powerful too often bend the acts of government to their selfish purposes. Distinctions in society will always exist under every just government. Equality of talents, of education, or of wealth can not be produced by human institutions. In the full enjoyment of the gifts of Heaven and the fruits of superior industry, economy, and virtue, every man is equally entitled to protection by law; but when the laws undertake to add to these natural and just advantages artificial distinctions, to grant titles, gratuities, and exclusive privileges, to make the rich richer and the potent more powerful, the humble members of society — the farmers, mechanics, and laborers — who have neither the time nor the means of securing like favors to themselves, have a right to complain of the injustice of their government. There are no necessary evils in government. Its evils exist only in its abuses. If it would confine itself to equal protection, and, as Heaven does its rains, shower its favors alike on the high and the low, the rich and the poor, it would be an unqualified blessing. Veto Mesage Regarding the Bank of the United States http://avalon.law.yale.edu/19th_century/ajveto01.asp (10 July 1832).

„Hemans gallows ought to be the fate of all such ambitious men who would involve their country in civil wars“

—  Andrew Jackson
Context: Hemans gallows ought to be the fate of all such ambitious men who would involve their country in civil wars, and all the evils in its train that they might reign & ride on its whirlwinds & direct the Storm — The free people of these United States have spoken, and consigned these wicked demagogues to their proper doom. Regarding the resolution of the Nullification Crisis, in a letter to Andrew I. Crawford (1 May 1833).

„You are a den of vipers and thieves. I have determined to rout you out, and by the Eternal,“

—  Andrew Jackson
Context: Gentlemen! I too have been a close observer of the doings of the Bank of the United States. I have had men watching you for a long time, and am convinced that you have used the funds of the bank to speculate in the breadstuffs of the country. When you won, you divided the profits amongst you, and when you lost, you charged it to the bank. You tell me that if I take the deposits from the bank and annul its charter I shall ruin ten thousand families. That may be true, gentlemen, but that is your sin! Should I let you go on, you will ruin fifty thousand families, and that would be my sin! You are a den of vipers and thieves. I have determined to rout you out, and by the Eternal, (bringing his fist down on the table) I will rout you out! From the original minutes of the Philadelphia committee of citizens sent to meet with President Jackson (February 1834), according to Andrew Jackson and the Bank of the United States (1928) by Stan V. Henkels - online PDF http://kenhirsch.net/money/AndrewJacksonAndTheBankHenkels.pdf

„I know what I am fit for. I can command a body of men in a rough way, but I am not fit to be President.“

—  Andrew Jackson
Context: Do they think that I am such a damned fool as to think myself fit for President of the United States? No, sir; I know what I am fit for. I can command a body of men in a rough way, but I am not fit to be President. As told to H.M. Brackenridge, Jackson's secretary, in 1821; quoted by James Parton, The Life of Andrew Jackson (1860), vol. II, ch. XXVI (Houghton Mifflin and Co., 1888), page 354. Parton cites his source as H.M. Brackenridge, Letters, page 8.

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„But if they have other power to regulate the currency, it was conferred to be exercised by themselves, and not to be transferred to a corporation.“

—  Andrew Jackson
Context: It is maintained by some that the bank is a means of executing the constitutional power “to coin money and regulate the value thereof.” Congress have established a mint to coin money and passed laws to regulate the value thereof. The money so coined, with its value so regulated, and such foreign coins as Congress may adopt are the only currency known to the Constitution. But if they have other power to regulate the currency, it was conferred to be exercised by themselves, and not to be transferred to a corporation. If the bank be established for that purpose, with a charter unalterable without its consent, Congress have parted with their power for a term of years, during which the Constitution is a dead letter. It is neither necessary nor proper to transfer its legislative power to such a bank, and therefore unconstitutional. Veto Message Regarding the Bank of the United States http://avalon.law.yale.edu/19th_century/ajveto01.asp (10 July 1832) Often paraphrased as: If Congress has the right under the constitution to issue paper money, it was given them to be used by themselves, not to be delegated to individuals or corporations.

„It is to be regretted that the rich and powerful too often bend the acts of government to their selfish purposes. Distinctions in society will always exist under every just government.“

—  Andrew Jackson
Context: It is to be regretted that the rich and powerful too often bend the acts of government to their selfish purposes. Distinctions in society will always exist under every just government. Equality of talents, of education, or of wealth can not be produced by human institutions. In the full enjoyment of the gifts of Heaven and the fruits of superior industry, economy, and virtue, every man is equally entitled to protection by law; but when the laws undertake to add to these natural and just advantages artificial distinctions, to grant titles, gratuities, and exclusive privileges, to make the rich richer and the potent more powerful, the humble members of society — the farmers, mechanics, and laborers — who have neither the time nor the means of securing like favors to themselves, have a right to complain of the injustice of their government. There are no necessary evils in government. Its evils exist only in its abuses. If it would confine itself to equal protection, and, as Heaven does its rains, shower its favors alike on the high and the low, the rich and the poor, it would be an unqualified blessing. Veto Mesage Regarding the Bank of the United States http://avalon.law.yale.edu/19th_century/ajveto01.asp (10 July 1832).

„John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it!“

—  Andrew Jackson
As quoted in The American Conflict (1865) by Horace Greely, as a reaction to the Supreme Court ruling in Worcester v. Georgia (1832); reported as a misattribution in Paul F. Boller, Jr., and John George, They Never Said It: A Book of Fake Quotes, Misquotes, & Misleading Attributions (1989), p. 53, noting that historian Robert V. Remini believes Jackson did not make this statement, though it summarizes his attitude, as evidenced in a statement similar in nature made in a letter to John Coffee: "the decision of the Supreme Court has fell still born, and they find that they cannot coerce Georgia to yield to its mandate."

„One man with courage makes a majority.“

—  Andrew Jackson
However, see also the attributed quote "desperate courage makes One a majority." Attributed to Jackson by Robert F. Kennedy in his "Foreword" to the "Young Readers Memorial Edition" of John F. Kennedy's Profiles in Courage, and by Ronald Reagan in nominating Robert Bork to the US Supreme Court, this has never been found in Jackson's writings, and there is no record of him having declared it. Somewhat similar statements are known to have been made by others:

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„Our Federal Union! It must be preserved!“

—  Andrew Jackson
Toast at a celebration of Thomas Jefferson's birthday (13 April 1830); as quoted in Public Men and Events from the Commencement of Mr. Monroe's Administration, in 1817, to the Close of Mr. Fillmore's Administration, in 1853 (1875) by Nathan Sargent

„Peace, above all things, is to be desired, but blood must sometimes be spilled to obtain it on equable and lasting terms.“

—  Andrew Jackson
As quoted in Many Thoughts of Many Minds: A Treasury of Quotations from the Literature of Every Land and Every Age (1896) edited by Louis Klopsch, p. 209.

„Any man worth his salt will stick up for what he believes right, but it takes a slightly better man to acknowledge instantly and without reservation that he is in error.“

—  Andrew Jackson
General Peyton C. March, as quoted in Crew Resource Management for the Fire Service (2004) by Randy Okray and Thomas Lubnau II, p. 25.

„Corporations have neither bodies to kick nor souls to damn.“

—  Andrew Jackson
This is widely attributed to Jackson on the internet, but in research done for Wikiquote, no published source has been found. Similar remarks, "Corporations have neither bodies to be punished, nor souls to be condemned, they therefore do as they like." and "It has no soul to damn and no body to kick." have been attributed to Edward Thurlow, 1st Baron Thurlow (9 December 1731 – 12 September 1806).

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