Frases de Empédocles

Empédocles Foto
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Empédocles

Fecha de nacimiento: 490 a.C.
Fecha de muerte: 430 a.C.

Empédocles de Agrigento, en griego Ἐμπεδοκλής, [1]​ fue un filósofo y político griego.

En la Grecia antigua, con pensadores como Parménides, Heráclito y Pitágoras entre otros, la separación gradual entre lo espiritual y lo material, entre el movimiento y la inmutabilidad del Ser, entre lo racional y lo sensible, etc., representaban algunas de las preocupaciones de la filosofía de aquella época. En el caso de Empédocles, su pensamiento tuvo presente algunas de estas ideas y las incorporó en una doctrina que contempla tanto la argumentación racionalista como el espíritu místico.

Fue un filósofo que se interesó mucho por el pensamiento de Parménides. Tomó de él muchos atributos asignados al Ser parmenídeo y los aplicó a su propia Sphairos, la divinidad en la cual todo estaba mezclado en armonía. Cree como Parménides que nada puede originarse de la nada y que lo que existe no puede desaparecer, pero mientras que aquel deducía de esto que la realidad era una e inmóvil, Empédocles postuló que eran cuatro los principios materiales de la realidad y que se hallaban en constante movimiento, mezclándose y repulsándose por las fuerzas espirituales del Amor y el Odio. Estos eran los elementos propuestos por Tales de Mileto, Anaxímenes, Heraclito y Jenófanes: agua, aire, fuego y tierra respectivamente.

Frases Empédocles

„Fortunate is he who has acquired a wealth of divine understanding, but wretched the one whose interest lies in shadowy conjectures about divinities.“

—  Empedocles

fr. 132
Variant translations:
Blessed is he who has acquired a wealth of divine wisdom, but miserable is he in whom there rests a dim opinion concerning the gods.
tr. Arthur Fairbanks
Purifications
Original: (el) ὄλβιος, ὅς θείων πραπίδων ἐκτήσατο πλοῦτον,/δειλὸς δ’, ὧι σκοτόεσσα θεῶν πέρι δόξα μέμηλεν.
Fuente: Fairbanks, Arthur. (1898). The First Philosophers of Greece https://archive.org/stream/cu31924029013162. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co. Ltd. p. 201.

„I shall speak twice over. As upon a time One came to be alone out of many, so at another time it divided to be many out of One: fire and water and earth and the limitless vault of air, and wretched Strife apart from these, in equal measure to everything, and Love among them, equal in length and breadth.“

—  Empedocles, libro On Nature

from fr. 17
Variant translations:
But come! but hear my words! For knowledge gained/Makes strong thy soul. For as before I spake/Naming the utter goal of these my words/I will report a twofold truth. Now grows/The One from Many into being, now/Even from one disparting come the Many--/Fire, Water, Earth, and awful heights of Air;/And shut from them apart, the deadly Strife/In equipoise, and Love within their midst/In all her being in length and breadth the same/Behold her now with mind, and sit not there/With eyes astonished, for 'tis she inborn/Abides established in the limbs of men/Through her they cherish thoughts of love, through her/Perfect the works of concord, calling her/By name Delight, or Aphrodite clear.
tr. William E. Leonard
On Nature
Original: (el) ἀλλ’ ἄγε μύθων κλῦθι· μάθη γάρ τοι φρένας αὔξει· ὡς γὰρ καὶ πρὶν ἔειπα πιφαύσκων πείρατα μύθων, δίπλ’ ἐρέω· τοτὲ μὲν γὰρ ἕν ηὐξήθη μόνον ῏ειναι ἐκ πλεόνων, τοτὲ δ’ αὖ διέφυ πλέον’ ἐξ ἑνὸς εἶναι, πῦρ καὶ ὕδωρ καὶ γαῖα καὶ ἠέρος ἄπλετον ὕψος, Νεῖκος τ’ οὐλόμενον δίχα τῶν, ἀτάλαντον ἁπάντηι. καὶ Φιλότης ἐν τοῖσιν, ἴση μῆκός τε πλάτος τε· τὴν σὺ νόωι δέρκευ, μηδ’ ὄμμασιν ἧσο τεθηπώς· ἥτις καὶ θνητοῖσι νομίζεται ἔμφυτος ἄρθροις, τῆι τε φίλα φρονέουσι καὶ ἄρθμια ἔργα τελοῦσι, Γηθοσύνην καλέοντες ἐπώνυμον ἠδ’ Ἀφροδίτην·
Contexto: But come, hear my words, since indeed learning improves the spirit. Now as I said before, setting out the bounds of my words, I shall speak twice over. As upon a time One came to be alone out of many, so at another time it divided to be many out of One: fire and water and earth and the limitless vault of air, and wretched Strife apart from these, in equal measure to everything, and Love among them, equal in length and breadth. Consider [Love] in mind, you, and don't sit there with eyes glazing over. It is a thing considered inborn in mortals, to their very bones; through it they form affections and accomplish peaceful acts, calling it Joy or Aphrodite by name.

„He must for seasons thrice ten thousand roam“

—  Empedocles

tr. Phillip H. De Lacy and Benedict Einarson. Cf. full quotation at Leonard p. 54-55 https://books.google.com/books?id=omUTAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA54#v=onepage&q&f=false
fr. 115, as paraphrased in Plutarch's Moralia
Purifications
Original: (el) ἔστιν ἀνάγκης χρῆμα, θεῶν ψήφισμα παλαιόν, εὖτέ τις ἀμπλακίῃσι φόνῳ φίλα γυῖα μιήνῃ, δαίμονες οἵ τε μακραίωνος λελάχασι βίοιο, τρίς μιν μυρίας ὥρας ἀπὸ μακάρων ἀλάλησθαι, τὴν καὶ ἐγὼ νῦν εἶμι, φυγὰς θεόθεν καὶ ἀλήτης
Contexto: A law there is, an oracle of Doom, Of old enacted by the assembled gods, That if a Daemon—such as live for ages— Defile himself with foul and sinful murder, He must for seasons thrice ten thousand roam Far from the Blest; such is the path I tread, I too a wanderer and exile from heaven.

„Far from the Blest; such is the path I tread,“

—  Empedocles

tr. Phillip H. De Lacy and Benedict Einarson. Cf. full quotation at Leonard p. 54-55 https://books.google.com/books?id=omUTAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA54#v=onepage&q&f=false
fr. 115, as paraphrased in Plutarch's Moralia
Purifications
Original: (el) ἔστιν ἀνάγκης χρῆμα, θεῶν ψήφισμα παλαιόν, εὖτέ τις ἀμπλακίῃσι φόνῳ φίλα γυῖα μιήνῃ, δαίμονες οἵ τε μακραίωνος λελάχασι βίοιο, τρίς μιν μυρίας ὥρας ἀπὸ μακάρων ἀλάλησθαι, τὴν καὶ ἐγὼ νῦν εἶμι, φυγὰς θεόθεν καὶ ἀλήτης
Contexto: A law there is, an oracle of Doom, Of old enacted by the assembled gods, That if a Daemon—such as live for ages— Defile himself with foul and sinful murder, He must for seasons thrice ten thousand roam Far from the Blest; such is the path I tread, I too a wanderer and exile from heaven.

„I too a wanderer and exile from heaven.“

—  Empedocles

tr. Phillip H. De Lacy and Benedict Einarson. Cf. full quotation at Leonard p. 54-55 https://books.google.com/books?id=omUTAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA54#v=onepage&q&f=false
fr. 115, as paraphrased in Plutarch's Moralia
Purifications
Original: (el) ἔστιν ἀνάγκης χρῆμα, θεῶν ψήφισμα παλαιόν, εὖτέ τις ἀμπλακίῃσι φόνῳ φίλα γυῖα μιήνῃ, δαίμονες οἵ τε μακραίωνος λελάχασι βίοιο, τρίς μιν μυρίας ὥρας ἀπὸ μακάρων ἀλάλησθαι, τὴν καὶ ἐγὼ νῦν εἶμι, φυγὰς θεόθεν καὶ ἀλήτης
Contexto: A law there is, an oracle of Doom, Of old enacted by the assembled gods, That if a Daemon—such as live for ages— Defile himself with foul and sinful murder, He must for seasons thrice ten thousand roam Far from the Blest; such is the path I tread, I too a wanderer and exile from heaven.

„For already, sometime, I have been a boy and a girl, a shrub, a bird, and a silent fish in the sea.“

—  Empedocles

fr. 117
Variant translations:
Once on a time a youth was I, and I was a maiden/A bush, a bird, and a fish with scales that gleam in the ocean.
tr. Jane Ellen Harrison
Purifications
Original: (el) ἤδη γάρ ποτ’ ἐγὼ γενόμην κοῦρός τε κόρη τε/θάμνος τ’ οἰωνός τε καὶ ἔξαλος ἔλλοπος ἰχθύς.
Fuente: Harrison, Jane Ellen. (1903). Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion. Princeton University Press. p. 590.

„The sight of both [eyes] becomes one.“

—  Empedocles, libro On Nature

fr. 88
On Nature
Original: (el) μία γίγνεται ἀμφοτέρων ὄψ.

„And I will tell you something else: there is no birth of all mortal things, nor any end in wretched death, but only a mixing and dissolution of mixtures; 'birth' is so called on the part of mankind.“

—  Empedocles, libro On Nature

fr. 8
On Nature
Original: (el) ἄλλο δέ τοι ἐρέω· φύσις οὐδενός ἐστιν ἁπάντων θνητῶν, οὐδέ τις οὐλομένου θανάτοιο τελευτή, ἀλλὰ μόνον μίξις τε διάλλαξίς τε μιγέντων ἐστί, φύσις δ’ἐπὶ τοῖς ὀνομάζεται ἀνθρώποισιν.

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„As it has long been and shall be, not ever, I think, will unfathomable time be emptied of either.“

—  Empedocles, libro On Nature

This quote refers to Love and Strife, the fundamental opposing and ordering forces in Empedocles' model of the cosmos.
fr. 16
On Nature
Original: (el) ἧι γὰρ καὶ πάρος ἔσκε, καὶ ἔσσεται, οὐδέ ποτ’, οἴω,/τούτων ἀμφοτέρων κενεώσεται ἄσπετος αἰών.

„Nothing of the All is either empty or superfluous.“

—  Empedocles, libro On Nature

fr. 13
On Nature
Original: (el) οὐδέ τι τοῦ παντὸς κενεὸν πέλει οὐδὲ περισσόν.

„The earth's sweat, the sea.“

—  Empedocles, libro On Nature

fr. 55
On Nature
Original: (el) γῆς ἱδρῶτα θάλασσαν.

„Fools -- for their thoughts are not well-considered who suppose that not-being exists or that anything dies and is wholly annihilated.“

—  Empedocles, libro On Nature

fr. 11
On Nature
Original: (el) νήπιοι· οὐ γάρ σφιν δολιχόφρονές εἰσι μέριμναι, οἵ δὴ γίγνεσθαι πάρος οὐκ ἐὸν ἐλπίζουσιν ἤ τι καταθνήισκειν τε καὶ ἐξόλλυσθαι ἁπάντηι.

„For one by one did quake the limbs of God.“

—  Empedocles, libro On Nature

tr. William Leonard
fr. 31
On Nature
Original: (el) πάντα γὰρ ἑξείης πελεμίζετο γυῖα θεοῖο.
Fuente: Leonard, William E. (1908). The Fragments of Empedocles. The Open Court Publishing Company. p. 30.

„With deep roots Ether plunged into earth.“

—  Empedocles, libro On Nature

fr. 54
On Nature
Original: (el) αἰθήρ [δ’ αὖ] μακρῆισι κατὰ χθόνα δύετο ῥίζαις.

„From such honor and such a height of fortune am I, thus fallen to earth, cast down amongst mortals.“

—  Empedocles

fr. 119
Purifications
Original: (el) ἐξ οἵης τιμῆς τε καὶ ὅσσου μήκεος ὄλβου/ὧδε [πεσὼν κατὰ γαῖαν] ἀναστρέφομαι μετὰ θνητοῖς.

„What needs [saying] is worth saying twice.“

—  Empedocles, libro On Nature

fr. 25
On Nature
Original: (el) …καὶ δὶς γάρ, ὅ δεῖ, καλόν ἐστιν ἐνισπεῖν.

„Hear first the four roots of all things: shining Zeus, life-bringing Hera, Aidoneus, and Nestis, who wets with tears the mortal wellspring.“

—  Empedocles, libro On Nature

fr. 6
On Nature
Original: (el) τέσσαρα γὰρ πάντων ῥιζώματα πρῶτον ἄκουε· Ζεὺς ἀργὴς Ἥρη τε φερέσβιος ἠδ’ Ἀιδωνεύς Νῆστίς θ’, ἥ δακρύοις τέγγει κρούνωμα βρότειον.
Fuente: Aidoneus corresponds to Hades.
Fuente: Nestis corresponds to Persephone.

„But what is lawful for all extends across wide-ruling aether and, without cease, through endless sunshine.“

—  Empedocles

fr. 135, as quoted in Aristotle's Rhetoric, 1373 b16
Purifications
Original: (el) ἀλλὰ τὸ μὲν πάντων νόμιμον διάτ᾽ εὐρυμέδοντος/αἰθέρος ἠνεκέως τέταται διά τ᾽ ἀπλέτου αὐγῆς

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