Frases de Humberto Maturana
Fecha de nacimiento: 14. Septiembre 1928
Humberto Augusto Maturana Romesín es un destacado biólogo, filósofo y escritor chileno, Premio Nacional de Ciencias en 1994.
Trabajó en el Instituto Tecnológico de Massachusetts entre 1958 y 1960. Más tarde, junto a su alumno y luego colaborador Francisco Varela, definió el concepto de autopoiesis en su libro de 1972 De máquinas y seres vivos, el cual da cuenta de la organización de los sistemas vivos como redes cerradas de autoproducción de los componentes que las constituyen. Además sentó las bases de la «biología del conocer», disciplina que se hace cargo de explicar el operar de los seres vivos en tanto sistemas cerrados y determinados en su estructura.
Otro aspecto importante de sus reflexiones corresponde a la invitación que Maturana hace al cambio de la pregunta por el «ser» , a la pregunta por el «hacer» . Wikipedia
Frases Humberto Maturana
„Living systems are units of interactions; they exist in an ambience. From a purely biological point of view they cannot be understood independently of that part of the ambience with which they interact: the niche; nor can the niche be defined independently of the living system that specifies it.“
Fuente: Biology of Cognition (1970), p. 9.
Attributed to Maturana in: Heinz von Foerster (1979) " Cybernetics of Cybernetics http://faculty.stevenson.edu/jlombardi/pdf's/cybernetics.pdf"
Von Foerster "baptized"this quote as "Humberto Maturana’s Theorem Number One".
Humberto Maturana et al. (1996) " Biology of love http://www.lifesnaturalsolutions.com.au/documents/biology-of-love.pdf"
„Man knows and his capacity to know depends on his biological integrity; furthermore, he knows that he knows. As a basic psychological and, hence, biological function cognition guides his handling of the universe and knowledge gives certainty to his acts; objective knowledge seems possible and through objective knowledge the universe appears systematic and predictable.“
Fuente: Biology of Cognition (1970), p. 5 Introduction.
Fuente: Autopoiesis and cognition: The realization of the living (1980), p. 137.
„We say that the words were smooth, caressing, hard, sharp, and so on: all words that refer to body touching. Indeed we can kill or elate with words as body experiences. We kill or elate with words because, as co-ordinations of actions, they take place through body interactions that trigger in us body changes in the domain of physiology.“
Fuente: Reality; The Search for Objectivity or the Quest for a Compelling Argument (1988), p. 48 as cited in: Vincent Kenny (1989).
„I maintain that learned orienting interactions, coupled with some mode of behavior that allowed for an independent recursive expansion of the domain of interactions of the organism, such as social life… and/or tool making and use, must have offered a selective basis for the evolution of the orienting behavior that in hominids led to our present-day languages.“
Fuente: Biology of Cognition (1970), p. 31.
„The linguistic domain as a domain of orienting behavior requires at least two interacting organisms with comparable domains of interactions, so that a cooperative system of consensual interactions may be developed in which the emerging conduct of the two organisms is relevant for both. The specifiability through learning of the orienting interactions allows for a purely consensual (cultural) evolution in this domain, without it necessarily involving any further evolution of the nervous system; for this reason the linguistic domain in general, and the domain of self-consciousness in particular, are, in principle, independent of the biological substratum that generates them.“
Fuente: Biology of Cognition (1970), p. 43.
„An autopoietic machine is a machine organized (defined as a unity) as a network of processes of production (transformation and destruction) of components which:
(i) through their interactions and transformations continuously regenerate and realize the network of processes (relations) that produced them; and
(ii) constitute it (the machine) as a concrete unity in space in which they (the components) exist by specifying the topological domain of its realization as such a network.“
Fuente: Autopoiesis and cognition: The realization of the living (1980), p. 87.
„By autopoietic organization, Maturana and Varela meant the] processes interlaced in the specific form of a network of productions of components which realizing the network that produced them constitutes it as a unity.“
Fuente: Autopoiesis and cognition: The realization of the living (1980), p. 80 as cited in: Lee O. Thayer, George A. Barnett (1997) * Organization-Communication: Emerging Perspectives, Volume 5:. p. 193.
„Coherence and harmony in relations and interactions between the members of a human social system are due to the coherence and harmony of their growth in it, in an ongoing social learning which their own social ( linguistic) operation defines and which is possible thanks to the genetic and ontogenetic processes that permit structural plasticity of the members.“
Fuente: The tree of Knowledge (1987), p. 199 as cited in: Vincent Kenny (1989) " Life, the Multiverse and Everything; an Introduction to the Ideas of. Humberto Maturana http://www.oikos.org/vinclife.htm".
„A living system, due to its circular organization, is an inductive system and functions always in a predictive manner: what happened once will occur again. Its organization, (genetic and otherwise) is conservative and repeats only that which works. For this same reason living systems are historical systems; the relevance of a given conduct or mode of behavior is always determined in the past.“
Fuente: Biology of Cognition (1970), p. 26-27.
„We can also say that language is a domain of recursive linguistic co-ordinations of actions, or a domain of second-order linguistic co-ordinations of actions. We human beings also co-ordinate our actions with each other in first-order linguistic domains, and we do so frequently with non-human animals.“
Fuente: Reality; The Search for Objectivity or the Quest for a Compelling Argument (1988), p. 48 as cited in: Vincent Kenny (1989) " Life, the Multiverse and Everything; an Introduction to the Ideas of. Humberto Maturana http://www.oikos.org/vinclife.htm".
„[T]he space defined by an autopoietic system is self-contained and cannot be described by using dimensions that define another space. When we refer to our interactions with a concrete autopoietic system, however, we project this system on the space of our manipulations and make a description of this projection.“
Fuente: Autopoiesis and cognition: The realization of the living (1980), p. 89.