Frases de Linius Pauling

Linius Pauling Foto
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Linius Pauling

Fecha de nacimiento: 28. Febrero 1901
Fecha de muerte: 19. Agosto 1994
Otros nombres: Лайнус Полинг

Linus Carl Pauling fue un químico, bioquímico y activista estadounidense. Él mismo se consideraba cristalógrafo, biólogo molecular e investigador médico. Fue uno de los primeros químicos cuánticos, y recibió el Premio Nobel de Química en 1954, por su trabajo en el que describía los enlaces químicos. Pauling es, hasta ahora, una de las pocas personas que han recibido el Premio Nobel en más de una ocasión, y las dos veces de manera individual,[Nota 1]​ ya que también recibió el Premio Nobel de la Paz en 1962, por su campaña contra las pruebas nucleares terrestres.[1]​

Contribuyó a la definición de la estructura de los cristales y proteínas, y fue uno de los fundadores de la biología molecular. Es reconocido como un científico muy versátil, debido a sus contribuciones en diversos campos, entre ellos: la química cuántica, la química inorgánica y orgánica, la metalurgia, la inmunología, la anestesiología, la psicología y la desintegración radiactiva.[cita requerida]Adicionalmente, Pauling abogó por el consumo de grandes dosis de vitamina C, algo que ahora se considera fuera de la ortodoxia médica.

En 1939 publicó su obra más importante, The Nature of the Chemical Bond , en la cual desarrolló el concepto de hibridación de los orbitales atómicos. Tanto sus trabajos sobre los sustitutos del plasma sanguíneo , durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, como sus investigaciones en la anemia de células falciformes , influyeron en gran medida en la investigación de la biología de la segunda mitad del siglo XX. Pauling descubrió la estructura de la hélice alfa , lo que lo llevó a acercarse al descubrimiento de la «doble hélice» del ADN , poco antes de que James Dewey Watson y Francis Crick hicieran el descubrimiento en 1953. De hecho, propuso una estructura en forma de triple hélice, la cual, estudiando el ADN por radiocristalografía, habría podido llevar a la elaboración de un modelo en forma de doble hélice.

Wikipedia

„Siempre he querido saber tanto como sea posible sobre el mundo.“

—  Linius Pauling

Fuente: Linus Pauling in his own words(1995) de Barbara Marinacci. ISBN 0-684-81387-4

„Si quieres tener buenas ideas, tienes que tener muchas ideas. La mayoría de ellas serán erróneas, y solo tienes que aprender cuáles desechar.“

—  Linius Pauling

Citado por Francis Crick en su presentación "El impacto de Linus Pauling en la biología molecular" (1995) http://oregonstate.edu/dept/Special_Collections/subpages/ahp/1995symposium/crick.html

„La única política sensata para el mundo es la de eliminar la guerra.“

—  Linius Pauling

Discurso de aceptación del premio Nobel de la Paz 1962. (11 de diciembre de 1963)

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„I know also that still more interesting discoveries will be made that I have not the imagination to describe — and I am awaiting them, full of curiosity and enthusiasm.“

—  Linus Pauling

Lecture at Yale University, "Chemical Achievement and Hope for the Future." (October 1947) Published in Science in Progress. Sixth Series. Ed. George A. Baitsell. 100-21, (1949).
1940s-1960s
Contexto: Science cannot be stopped. Man will gather knowledge no matter what the consequences – and we cannot predict what they will be. Science will go on — whether we are pessimistic, or are optimistic, as I am. I know that great, interesting, and valuable discoveries can be made and will be made… But I know also that still more interesting discoveries will be made that I have not the imagination to describe — and I am awaiting them, full of curiosity and enthusiasm.

„Nobody wins. Nobody benefits from destructive war of this sort and there is all of this human suffering.“

—  Linus Pauling

Interview at Big Sur, California http://www.achievement.org/autodoc/printmember/pau0int-1 (11 November 1990).
1990s
Contexto: I realized that more and more I was saying, "It seems to me that we have come to the time war ought to be given up. It no longer makes sense to kill 20 million or 40 million people because of a dispute between two nations who are running things, or decisions made by the people who really are running things. It no longer makes sense. Nobody wins. Nobody benefits from destructive war of this sort and there is all of this human suffering." And Einstein was saying the same thing of course. So that is when we decided — my wife and I — that first, I was pretty effective as a speaker. Second, I better start boning up, studying these other fields so that nobody could stand up and say, "Well, the authorities say such and such "

„The only sane policy for the world is that of abolishing war.“

—  Linus Pauling

Nobel Lecture for The Nobel Peace Prize 1962 (11 December 1963).
1940s-1960s

„When an old and distinguished person speaks to you, listen to him carefully and with respect — but do not believe him. Never put your trust into anything but your own intellect.“

—  Linus Pauling

Linus Pauling: Scientist and Peacemaker (2001) by Clifford Mead and Thomas Hager.
1990s
Contexto: When an old and distinguished person speaks to you, listen to him carefully and with respect — but do not believe him. Never put your trust into anything but your own intellect. Your elder, no matter whether he has gray hair or has lost his hair, no matter whether he is a Nobel laureate — may be wrong. The world progresses, year by year, century by century, as the members of the younger generation find out what was wrong among the things that their elders said. So you must always be skeptical — always think for yourself.

„The world progresses, year by year, century by century, as the members of the younger generation find out what was wrong among the things that their elders said. So you must always be skeptical — always think for yourself.“

—  Linus Pauling

Linus Pauling: Scientist and Peacemaker (2001) by Clifford Mead and Thomas Hager.
1990s
Contexto: When an old and distinguished person speaks to you, listen to him carefully and with respect — but do not believe him. Never put your trust into anything but your own intellect. Your elder, no matter whether he has gray hair or has lost his hair, no matter whether he is a Nobel laureate — may be wrong. The world progresses, year by year, century by century, as the members of the younger generation find out what was wrong among the things that their elders said. So you must always be skeptical — always think for yourself.

„I think I think harder, think more than other people do, than other scientists.“

—  Linus Pauling

Interview at Big Sur, California http://web.archive.org/web/20101212203431/http://achievement.org/autodoc/page/pau0int-3 (11 November 1990).
1990s
Contexto: I've been asked from time to time, "How does it happen that you have made so many discoveries? Are you smarter than other scientists?" And my answer has been that I am sure that I am not smarter than other scientists. I don't have any precise evaluation of my IQ, but to the extent that psychologists have said that my IQ is about 160, I recognize that there are one hundred thousand or more people in the United States that have IQs higher than that. So I have said that I think I think harder, think more than other people do, than other scientists. That is, for years, almost all of my thinking was about science and scientific problems that I was interested in.

„Just think of the differences today. A young person gets interested in chemistry and is given a chemical set. But it doesn't contain potassium cyanide. It doesn't even contain copper sulfate or anything else interesting because all the interesting chemicals are considered dangerous substances.“

—  Linus Pauling

Linus Pauling In His Own Words (1995) by Barbara Marinacci, p. 29.
1990s
Contexto: Just think of the differences today. A young person gets interested in chemistry and is given a chemical set. But it doesn't contain potassium cyanide. It doesn't even contain copper sulfate or anything else interesting because all the interesting chemicals are considered dangerous substances. Therefore, these budding young chemists don't get a chance to do anything engrossing with their chemistry sets. As I look back, I think it is pretty remarkable that Mr. Ziegler, this friend of the family, would have so easily turned over one-third of an ounce of potassium cyanide to me, an eleven-year-old boy.

„What astonished me was the very low toxicity of a substance that has such very great physiological power.“

—  Linus Pauling

Statement about vitamin B3, (either niacin or niacinamide), in How to Live Longer and Feel Better (1986), Avon Books, , p. 24.
1990s
Contexto: What astonished me was the very low toxicity of a substance that has such very great physiological power. A little pinch, 5 mg, every day, is enough to keep a person from dying of pellagra, but it is so lacking in toxicity that ten thousand times as much can be taken without harm.

„Science cannot be stopped. Man will gather knowledge no matter what the consequences – and we cannot predict what they will be.“

—  Linus Pauling

Lecture at Yale University, "Chemical Achievement and Hope for the Future." (October 1947) Published in Science in Progress. Sixth Series. Ed. George A. Baitsell. 100-21, (1949).
1940s-1960s
Contexto: Science cannot be stopped. Man will gather knowledge no matter what the consequences – and we cannot predict what they will be. Science will go on — whether we are pessimistic, or are optimistic, as I am. I know that great, interesting, and valuable discoveries can be made and will be made… But I know also that still more interesting discoveries will be made that I have not the imagination to describe — and I am awaiting them, full of curiosity and enthusiasm.

„We must not have a Nuclear war. We must begin to solve international disputes by the application of man's power of reason in a way that is worthy of the dignity of man.“

—  Linus Pauling

Debating Edward Teller, in The Nuclear Bomb Tests...Is Fallout Overrated? : Fallout and Disarmament KQED-TV, San Francisco http://osulibrary.oregonstate.edu/specialcollections/coll/pauling/peace/papers/1958p2.1.html (20 February 1958).
1940s-1960s
Contexto: We must not have a Nuclear war. We must begin to solve international disputes by the application of man's power of reason in a way that is worthy of the dignity of man. We must solve them by arbitration, negotiation, and the development of international law, the making of international agreements that will do justice to all nations and to all peoples and will benefit all nations and to all people. Now is the time to start.

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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