Frases de Oliver Cromwell

Oliver Cromwell Foto
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Oliver Cromwell

Fecha de nacimiento: 25. Abril 1599
Fecha de muerte: 3. Septiembre 1658

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Oliver Cromwell fue un líder político y militar inglés. Convirtió a Inglaterra en una república denominada Mancomunidad de Inglaterra .

Durante los cuarenta primeros años de su vida no fue más que un terrateniente de clase media, pero ascendió de forma meteórica hasta comandar el Nuevo Ejército Modelo y, a la larga, imponer su liderazgo sobre Inglaterra, Escocia e Irlanda como Lord Protector, desde el 16 de diciembre de 1653, hasta el día de su muerte. Desde entonces se ha convertido en una figura muy controvertida en la historia inglesa: para algunos historiadores como David Hume y Christopher Hill, no es más que un dictador regicida; para otros, como Thomas Carlyle y Samuel Rawson Gardiner, es un héroe de la lucha por la libertad.

Su carrera está llena de contradicciones. Fue un regicida que se cuestionó si debía o no aceptar la corona para sí mismo y finalmente decidió no hacerlo, pero acumuló más poder que el propio Carlos I de Inglaterra. Fue un parlamentario que ordenó a sus soldados disolver parlamentos. Fanático religioso seguidor del cristianismo protestante, sus campañas de conquista de Irlanda y de Escocia fueron brutales incluso para los cánones de la época, ya que consideraba que combatía con herejes. Bajo su mando, el Protectorado defendió la libertad de culto y conciencia, pero permitió que los blasfemos fueran torturados, además de perseguir cruelmente a los católicos. Se mostró a favor del criterio de equidad en la justicia, pero encerró a aquellos que criticaron su política de incrementar los impuestos sin el permiso del Parlamento de Inglaterra.

Sus admiradores lo citan como un líder fuerte, estabilizador y con sentido de Estado, que se ganó el respeto internacional, derrocó la tiranía y promovió la república y la libertad. Sus críticos le consideran un hipócrita abiertamente ambicioso que traicionó la causa de la libertad, impuso un sistema de valores puritano, y mostró un escaso respeto hacia las tradiciones del país. Cuando los monárquicos volvieron al poder, su cadáver fue desenterrado, colgado de cadenas y decapitado, y su cabeza expuesta durante años para escarnio público. En una encuesta de 2002 de la BBC , ocupa la posición número 10.

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Frases Oliver Cromwell

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„It's a blessed thing to die daily.“

— Oliver Cromwell
Context: It's a blessed thing to die daily. For what is there in this world to be accounted of! The best men according to the flesh, and things, are lighter than vanity. I find this only good, to love the Lord and his poor despised people, to do for them and to be ready to suffer with them.... and he that is found worthy of this hath obtained great favour from the Lord; and he that is established in this shall ( being conformed to Christ and the rest of the Body) participate in the glory of a resurrection which will answer all. Letter to Sir Thomas Fairfax (7 March 1646)

„No one rises so high as he who knows not whither he is going.“

— Oliver Cromwell
Statement to Pomponne de Bellievre, as told to Cardinal de Retz in 1651; Memoirs of Cardinal de Retz (1717) http://www.gutenberg.org/files/3846/3846.txt Variant: One never rises so high as when one does not know where one is going.

„That which brought me into the capacity I now stand in, was the Petition and Advice given me by you, who, in reference to the ancient Constitution, did draw me here to accept the place of Protector. There is not a man living can say I sought it, no not a man, nor woman, treading upon English ground.“

— Oliver Cromwell
Context: That which brought me into the capacity I now stand in, was the Petition and Advice given me by you, who, in reference to the ancient Constitution, did draw me here to accept the place of Protector. There is not a man living can say I sought it, no not a man, nor woman, treading upon English ground. Speech to Parliament http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=36881 (4 February 1658), quoted in The Diary of Thomas Burton, esq., volume 2: April 1657 - February 1658 (1828), p. 465-466

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„We declared our intentions to preserve monarchy, and they still are so, unless necessity enforce an alteration.“

— Oliver Cromwell
Context: We declared our intentions to preserve monarchy, and they still are so, unless necessity enforce an alteration. It’s granted the king has broken his trust, yet you are fearful to declare you will make no further addresses... look on the people you represent, and break not your trust, and expose not the honest party of your kingdom, who have bled for you, and suffer not misery to fall upon them for want of courage and resolution in you, else the honest people may take such courses as nature dictates to them. Speech in the Commons during the debate which preceded the "Vote of No Addresses" (January 1648) as recorded in the diary of John Boys of Kent

„You have accounted yourselves happy on being environed with a great ditch from all the world beside.“

— Oliver Cromwell
Speech to Parliament http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=36871 (25 January 1658), quoted in The Diary of Thomas Burton, esq., volume 2: April 1657 - February 1658 (1828), p. 361

„Do not trust to that; for these very persons would shout as much if you and I were going to be hanged.“

— Oliver Cromwell
Response to John Lambert's remarks that he "was glad to see we had the nation on our side" as they were cheered by a crowd in June 1650; as quoted by Gilbert Burnet in History of My Own Time http://books.google.com/books?id=-iswAAAAYAAJ&q="do+not+trust+to+that+for+these+very+persons+would+shout+as+much+if+you+and+I+were+going+to+be+hanged"&pg=PA145#v=onepage (1683); also in in God's Englishman by Christopher Hill (1970), Ch. VII, p. 188

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„If the remonstrance had been rejected I would have sold all I had the next morning and never have seen England more, and I know there are many other modest men of the same resolution.“

— Oliver Cromwell
On the passing of the revolutionary Grand Remonstrance of November 1641 listing Parliament's grievances against King Charles I, as quoted in A History of the Rebellion (first published 1702 – 1704) by Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon (1609 - 1674)

„Men have been led in dark paths, through the providence and dispensation of God. Why, surely it is not to be objected to a man, for who can love to walk in the dark? But providence doth often so dispose.“

— Oliver Cromwell
Answer to the Conference at the Committee at Whitehall, Second Protectorate Parliament (13 April 1657), quoted in The Diary of Thomas Burton, esq., volume 2: April 1657 - February 1658 (1828), p. 504

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