Frases de Ulysses S. Grant

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Ulysses S. Grant

Fecha de nacimiento: 27. Abril 1822
Fecha de muerte: 23. Julio 1885

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Ulysses S. Grant, nacido Hiram Ulysses Grant, , fue el comandante general del Ejército de los Estados Unidos al final de la Guerra de Secesión y el 18.º Presidente de los Estados Unidos . Como comandante general , Grant trabajó estrechamente con el presidente Abraham Lincoln liderando el Ejército de la Unión hasta la victoria sobre el bando Confederado en la Guerra de Secesión. Con el apoyo del Congreso, Grant implementó la Reconstrucción, a menudo en desacuerdo con el presidente Andrew Johnson. Elegido dos veces presidente, Grant lideró a los republicanos en su esfuerzo por erradicar los vestigios del nacionalismo confederado y la esclavitud, protegió a la ciudadanía afroestadounidense y fomentó la prosperidad económica. Aunque los ocho años de su presidencia han sido a veces criticados por numerosos escándalos en la administración y por su incapacidad para aliviar la depresión económica tras el Pánico de 1873, es reconocido como un presidente que gobernó relativamente bien en su contexto histórico y que persiguió la justicia para todos.

Grant se graduó en la academia militar de West Point y sirvió durante la Guerra de México-Estados Unidos . Tras este conflicto, contrajo matrimonio con Julia Boggs Dent en 1848, unión de la que nacieron cuatro hijos. Grant se retiró del ejército en 1854 y sufrió apuros económicos en su vida civil. Cuando estalló la Guerra de Secesión en 1861, se reincorporó al ejército. En 1862 tomó el control de Kentucky y de la mayor parte de Tennessee, y lideró a las fuerzas de la Unión en la victoria en Shiloh, con lo que se ganó una reputación de comandante agresivo. En julio de 1863, después de una serie de batallas coordinadas, Grant derrotó a los ejércitos confederados y conquistó Vicksburg, otorgando así el control del río Misisipi a la Unión y dividiendo a los confederados en dos. Tras sus victorias en la campaña de Chattanooga, Lincoln lo ascendió a teniente general y comandante general del ejército en marzo de 1864. Desde esta responsabilidad, Grant se enfrentó a Robert E. Lee en varias batallas sangrientas y atrapó a las fuerzas de su enemigo en su defensa de Richmond, la capital confederada. En otros teatros bélicos, Grant también coordinó una serie de exitosas campañas que finalmente llevaron a la rendición de Lee en Appomattox, con lo que puso fin efectivo la guerra. Los historiadores han alabado el genio militar de Grant y sus estrategias se estudian en los libros de historia bélica, aunque una minoría defiende que ganó por fuerza bruta más que por su estrategia superior.

Acabada la guerra, Grant encabezó la supervisión militar de la Reconstrucción en los antiguos estados confederados. Elegido presidente en 1868, estabilizó la nación en un período turbulento y persiguió al Ku Klux Klan usando al ejército y al recién creado Departamento de Justicia, al tiempo que reforzaba al partido republicano en el sur del país. En las elecciones los republicanos vencieron en once estados y algunos afroamericanos resultaron elegidos para puestos en la administración nacional, pero la minoría negra comenzó a ser atacada en el sur a pesar de los intentos de Grant por protegerlos. En 1871 el presidente fundó la Comisión del Servicio Civil para apaciguar a los reformadores. Un año después volvió a ganar las elecciones imponiéndose a una coalición de demócratas y liberales republicanos. En los estados sureños las coaliciones republicanas se escindieron y resultaron derrotadas en favor de los llamados «Redentores del Sur», una facción blanca que recurrió a la violencia, el fraude electoral y el racismo. A ello se sumaron varios escándalos de corrupción que salpicaron a miembros de la administración federal. La Política de Paz de Grant con los nativos americanos fue un punto de partida audaz pero acabó resultando un fracaso.

En política exterior, abogó por incrementar el comercio y evitar conflictos con otras naciones. Junto al Secretario de Estado Hamilton Fish, resolvió con éxito las Reclamaciones de Alabama a través del Tratado de Washington con Reino Unido. Asimismo, ambos evitaron la guerra con España durante el Asunto del Virginius gracias a la negociación de una resolución pacífica. Por otra parte, el Congreso rechazó la iniciativa de Grant para anexionarse República Dominicana, creando una brecha entre los republicanos. Su administración implementó un patrón oro y trató de fortalecer el dólar. La respuesta inmediata de Grant al Pánico de 1873 no impidió una grave depresión industrial que resultó en un aumento del desempleo, deflación y bancarrotas. Su mandato finalizó en 1877 e inmediatamente Grant se embarcó en una gira mundial de dos años que atrajo una gran atención internacional hacia su persona y su país.

En 1880 Grant no tuvo éxito en conseguir la candidatura republicana para un tercer mandato presidencial. Golpeado por varios reveses financieros y enfermo de un cáncer de laringe terminal, escribió sus memorias, las cuales serían un enorme éxito financiero y crítico. Su fallecimiento en 1885 desató una oleada de unidad nacional. Los logros históricos y el legado de Ulysses S. Grant han sido objeto de diversa consideración a lo largo de las décadas. Popularmente ha tenido fama de bebedor, algo que los historiadores coinciden en que es algo exagerado y nunca afectó negativamente a sus decisiones. Las primeras valoraciones históricas fueron muy negativas con la presidencia de Grant y los estudiosos la siguen considerando por debajo de la media, pero en tiempos recientes se aprecia su apoyo a los derechos civiles.

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Frases Ulysses S. Grant

„I have given the subject of arming the negro my hearty support. This, with the emancipation of the negro, is the heavyest blow yet given the Confederacy. The South rave a greatdeel about it and profess to be very angry.“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: I have given the subject of arming the negro my hearty support. This, with the emancipation of the negro, is the heavyest blow yet given the Confederacy. The South rave a greatdeel about it and profess to be very angry. But they were united in their action before and with the negro under subjec­tion could spare their entire white population for the field. Now they complain that nothing can be got out of their negroes.

„I propose to receive the surrender of the Army of N. Va. on the following terms“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: I propose to receive the surrender of the Army of N. Va. on the following terms, to wit: Rolls of all the officers and men to be made in duplicate. One copy to be given to an officer designated by me, the other to be retained by such officer or officers as you may designate. The officers to give their individual paroles not to take up arms against the Government of the United States until properly exchanged, and each company or regimental commander sign a like parole for the men of their commands. The arms, artillery and public property to be parked and stacked, and turned over to the officer appointed by me to receive them. This will not embrace the side-arms of the officers, nor their private horses or baggage. This done, each officer and man will be allowed to return to their homes, not to be disturbed by United States authority so long as they observe their paroles and the laws in force where they may reside. Terms of surrender, given to General Robert E. Lee after the Battle of Appomattox Courthouse (9 April 1865).

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„I feel that we are on the eve of a new era, when there is to be great harmony“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: I feel that we are on the eve of a new era, when there is to be great harmony between the Federal and Confederate. I cannot stay to be a living witness to the correctness of this prophecy; but I feel it within me that it is to be so. The universally kind feeling expressed for me at a time when it was supposed that each day would prove my last, seemed to me the beginning of the answer to "Let us have peace." The expression of these kindly feelings were not restricted to a section of the country, nor to a division of the people. They came from individual citizens of all nationalities; from all denominations — the Protestant, the Catholic, and the Jew; and from the various societies of the land — scientific, educational, religious or otherwise. Politics did not enter into the matter at all. I am not egotist enough to suppose all this significance should be given because I was the object of it. But the war between the States was a very bloody and a very costly war. One side or the other had to yield principles they deemed dearer than life before it could be brought to an end. I commanded the whole of the mighty host engaged on the victorious side. I was, no matter whether deservedly so or not, a representative of that side of the controversy. It is a significant and gratifying fact that Confederates should have joined heartily in this spontaneous move. I hope the good feeling inaugurated may continue to the end. Conclusion

„Keep the church and the state forever separate.“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: Encourage free schools, and resolve that not one dollar of money shall be appropriated to the support of any sectarian school. Resolve that neither the state nor nation, or both combined, shall support institutions of learning other than those sufficient to afford every child growing up in the land the opportunity of a good common school education, unmixed with sectarian, Pagan, or Atheistical tenets. Leave the matter of religion to the family altar, the church, and the private school, supported entirely by private contributions. Keep the church and the state forever separate. With these safeguards, I believe the battles which created the Army of the Tennessee will not have been fought in vain.

„Our conversation grew so pleasant that I almost forgot the object of our meeting.“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: Our conversation grew so pleasant that I almost forgot the object of our meeting. After the conversation had run on in this style for some time, General Lee called my attention to the object of our meeting, and said that he had asked for this interview for the purpose of getting from me the terms I proposed to give his army. I said that I meant merely that his army should lay down their arms, not to take them up again during the continuance of the war unless duly and properly exchanged. He said that he had so understood my letter. Ch. 67.

„I took no part myself in any such view of the case at the time, but since the war is over, reviewing the whole question, I have come to the conclusion that the saying is quite true.“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: The cause of the great War of the Rebellion against the United States will have to be attributed to slavery. For some years before the war began it was a trite saying among some politicians that 'A state half slave and half free cannot exist.' All must become slave or all free, or the state will go down. I took no part myself in any such view of the case at the time, but since the war is over, reviewing the whole question, I have come to the conclusion that the saying is quite true. Conclusion

„I can assure you that these colored troops are regularly mustered into the service of the United States“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: I feel no inclination to retaliate for the offences of irresponsible persons; but if it is the policy of any General intrusted with the command of troops to show no quarter, or to punish with death prisoners taken in battle, I will accept the issue. It may be you propose a different line of policy towards black troops, and officers commanding them, to that practiced towards white troops. So, I can assure you that these colored troops are regularly mustered into the service of the United States. The Government, and all officers under the Government, are bound to give the same protection to these troops that they do to any other troops. Regarding Confederate executions of captured Union prisoners of war at Milliken's Bend by hanging Letter to Richard Taylor at Vicksburg (1863) https://archive.org/stream/wordsofourheroul00gran/wordsofourheroul00gran_djvu.txt

„There had to be an end of slavery.“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: There had to be an end of slavery. Then we were fighting an enemy with whom we could not make a peace. We had to destroy him. No convention, no treaty was possible. Only destruction. To Otto von Bismarck in June 1878, as quoted in Around the World with General Grant http://www.granthomepage.com/grantslavery.htm (1879), by John Russell Young, The American News Company, New York, vol. 7, p. 416.

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„That is, by arming the negro we have added a powerful ally. They will make good soldiers and taking them from the enemy weaken him in the same proportion they strengthen us.“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: That is, by arming the negro we have added a powerful ally. They will make good soldiers and taking them from the enemy weaken him in the same proportion they strengthen us. I am therefore most decidedly in favor of pushing this policy to the enlistment of a force sufficient to hold all the South falling into our hands and to aid in capturing more.

„I repeat that the adoption of the fifteenth amendment to the Constitution completes the greatest civil change and constitutes the most important event that has occurred since the nation came into life. The change will be beneficial in proportion to the heed that is given to the urgent recommendations of Washington.“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: In his first annual message to Congress the same views are forcibly presented, and are again urged in his eighth message. I repeat that the adoption of the fifteenth amendment to the Constitution completes the greatest civil change and constitutes the most important event that has occurred since the nation came into life. The change will be beneficial in proportion to the heed that is given to the urgent recommendations of Washington. If these recommendations were important then, with a population of but a few millions, how much more important now, with a population of 40,000,000, and increasing in a rapid ratio.

„I suggest for your earnest consideration, and most earnestly recommend it, that a constitutional amendment be submitted to the legislatures of the several States for ratification, making it the duty of each of the several States to establish and forever maintain free public schools adequate to the education of all the children in the rudimentary branches within their respective limits, irrespective of sex, color, birthplace, or religions“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: As the primary step, therefore, to our advancement in all that has marked our progress in the past century, I suggest for your earnest consideration, and most earnestly recommend it, that a constitutional amendment be submitted to the legislatures of the several States for ratification, making it the duty of each of the several States to establish and forever maintain free public schools adequate to the education of all the children in the rudimentary branches within their respective limits, irrespective of sex, color, birthplace, or religions; forbidding the teaching in said schools of religious, atheistic, or pagan tenets; and prohibiting the granting of any school funds or school taxes, or any part thereof, either by legislative, municipal, or other authority, for the benefit or in aid, directly or indirectly, of any religious sect or denomination, or in aid or for the benefit of any other object of any nature or kind whatever.

„There was no time during the rebellion when I did not think, and often say, that the South was more to be benefited by its defeat than the North. The latter had the people, the institutions, and the territory to make a great and prosperous nation. The former was burdened with an institution abhorrent to all civilized people not brought up under it, and one which degraded labor, kept it in ignorance, and enervated the governing class.“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: There was no time during the rebellion when I did not think, and often say, that the South was more to be benefited by its defeat than the North. The latter had the people, the institutions, and the territory to make a great and prosperous nation. The former was burdened with an institution abhorrent to all civilized people not brought up under it, and one which degraded labor, kept it in ignorance, and enervated the governing class. With the outside world at war with this institution, they could not have extended their territory. The labor of the country was not skilled, nor allowed to become so. The whites could not toil without becoming degraded, and those who did were denominated 'poor white trash.' The system of labor would have soon exhausted the soil and left the people poor. The non-slaveholders would have left the country, and the small slaveholder must have sold out to his more fortunate neighbor. Soon the slaves would have outnumbered the masters, and, not being in sympathy with them, would have risen in their might and exterminated them. The war was expensive to the South as well as to the North, both in blood and treasure, but it was worth all it cost. Ch. 41.

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„The war has made us a nation of great power and intelligence.“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: The war has made us a nation of great power and intelligence. We have but little to do to preserve peace, happiness and prosperity at home, and the respect of other nations. Our experience ought to teach us the necessity of the first; our power secures the latter.

„I do not pretend to sustain the order.“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: I do not pretend to sustain the order. At the time of its publication I was insensed by a reprimand recieved from Washington for permitting acts which the Jews, within my lines, were engaged in.

„Slavery was an institution that required unusual guarantees for its security wherever it existed; and in a country like ours where the larger portion of it was free territory inhabited by an intelligent and well-to-do population, the people would naturally have but little sympathy with demands upon them for its protection.“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: Slavery was an institution that required unusual guarantees for its security wherever it existed; and in a country like ours where the larger portion of it was free territory inhabited by an intelligent and well-to-do population, the people would naturally have but little sympathy with demands upon them for its protection. Hence the people of the South were dependent upon keeping control of the general government to secure the perpetuation of their favorite institution. They were enabled to maintain this control long after the States where slavery existed had ceased to have the controlling power, through the assistance they received from odd men here and there throughout the Northern States. They saw their power waning, and this led them to encroach upon the prerogatives and independence of the Northern States by enacting such laws as the Fugitive Slave Law. By this law every Northern man was obliged, when properly summoned, to turn out and help apprehend the runaway slave of a Southern man. Northern marshals became slave-catchers, and Northern courts had to contribute to the support and protection of the institution.

„It is a subject for congratulation that the great Empire of Brazil has taken the initiatory step toward the abolition of slavery. Our relations with that Empire, always cordial, will naturally be made more so by this act.“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: It is a subject for congratulation that the great Empire of Brazil has taken the initiatory step toward the abolition of slavery. Our relations with that Empire, always cordial, will naturally be made more so by this act. It is not too much to hope that the Government of Brazil may hereafter find it for its interest, as well as intrinsically right, to advance toward entire emancipation more rapidly than the present act contemplates.

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