Frases de Vegecio

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Vegecio

Fecha de muerte: 450
Otros nombres: Flavius Vegetius Renatus, Флавий Вегеций Ренат

Vegecio, o Flavio Vegecio Renato , fue un escritor del Imperio romano del siglo IV. Nada se sabe de su vida excepto la breve definición que da él mismo. Vegecio no se identifica como militar, sino como "vir illustris et comes" términos que, en el latín de la época, le señalan como un personaje cercano al emperador. El cognomen Renato sugiere que abrazó el cristianismo en la edad adulta.

No se conoce la fecha exacta de su vida, salvo por las referencias históricas de su propia obra: en su Epitoma rei militaris alude al emperador Graciano como deificado, lo que sitúa la obra como posterior a la muerte de éste en el año 383; una anotación de Flavio Eutropio, un escriba de Constantinopla, sobre uno de sus manuscritos ya publicados, data del año 450. Vegecio dedicó sus obras al emperador reinante en la época, pero no especifica quién era éste exactamente; unos estudiosos sugieren que Teodosio I, la hipótesis más probable, y otros que Valentiniano III.

Se conocen dos obras suyas: Epitoma rei militaris, también conocido como De re militari, y la menos conocida Digesta Artis Mulomedicinae un tratado de veterinaria sobre las enfermedades de caballos y mulos. Fue la primera de ellas, Epitoma rei militaris la que le dio más fama.

Obras

„Así que quien desee la paz, que se prepare para la guerra.“

—  Vegecio, libro De re militari

Existe un famoso proverbio latino que dice Si vis pacem para bellum (Si quieres paz, prepara la guerra) en el que se han basado las relaciones internacionales desde la antigüedad, y al que se opone por parte de distintos autores el principio opuesto, Si vis pacem, para pacem, formulado por Robert Cecil, Vizconde de Chelwood, frente a Winston Churchill.
Fuente: Citado en Wilkinson, Paul. Una brevísima introducción a las relaciones internacionales. Editorial Oceano, 2008. ISBN 9786077358268.
Fuente: Personalities, War and Diplomacy: Essays in International History. Varios autores. Editores T.G. Otte, C. Pagedas. Editorial Routledge, 2014. ISBN 9781135253615. p. 105.
Fuente: Epitoma rei militaris, Libro 3.

„La victoria en la guerra no depende completamente del número o del simple valor; sólo la destreza y la disciplina la asegurarán. Hallaremos que los romanos debieron la conquista del mundo a ninguna otra causa que el continuo entrenamiento militar, la exacta observancia de la disciplina en sus campamentos y el perseverante cultivo de las otras artes de la guerra.“

—  Vegecio, libro De re militari

Fuente: Flavio Vegecio Renato. Epitoma Institutorum Rei militaris: Sobre la Institución Militar. Traducido por Antonio Diego Duarte Sánchez, Jorge Mambrilla Royo, Alfonso Rodríguez Belmonte. Editor Antonio Diego Duarte Sánchez. p. 7.
Fuente: Epitoma rei militaris.

„El valor de un soldado se enaltece con el conocimiento de su profesión, y sólo desea una oportunidad para ejecutar aquello que él está convencido de haber aprendido perfectamente.“

—  Vegecio

Fuente: Flavio Vegecio Renato. Epitoma Institutorum Rei militaris: Sobre la Institución Militar. Traducido por Antonio Diego Duarte Sánchez, Jorge Mambrilla Royo, Alfonso Rodríguez Belmonte. Editor Antonio Diego Duarte Sánchez. p. 7.

„El miramiento al examinar cada lugar será una seguridad contra peligros ocultos; y una emboscada, si se descubre y se rodea prestamente, se volverá en contra de quien la intenta.“

—  Vegecio

Fuente: Flavio Vegecio Renato. Epitoma Institutorum Rei militaris: Sobre la Institución Militar. Traducido por Antonio Diego Duarte Sánchez, Jorge Mambrilla Royo, Alfonso Rodríguez Belmonte. Editor Antonio Diego Duarte Sánchez. p. 40.

„The courage of a soldier is heightened by his knowledge of his profession,“

—  Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus, libro De re militari

De Re Militari (also Epitoma Rei Militaris), Book I, "The Selection and Training of New Levies"
Original: (la) Scientia enim rei bellicae dimicandi nutrit audaciam: nemo facere metuit quod se bene didicisse confidit.
Contexto: The courage of a soldier is heightened by his knowledge of his profession, and he only wants an opportunity to execute what he is convinced he has been perfectly taught. (Book 1)

„A stroke with the edges, though made with ever so much force, seldom kills, as the vital parts of the body are defended both by the bones and armor; on the contrary a stab, though it penetrates but two inches, is generally fatal.“

—  Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus, libro De re militari

Book 1
De Re Militari (also Epitoma Rei Militaris), Book I, "The Selection and Training of New Levies"
Original: (la) Caesa enim, quouis impetu ueniat, non frequenter interficit, cum et armis uitalia defendantur et ossibus; at contra puncta duas uncias adacta mortalis est.

„Good officers never engage in general actions unless induced by opportunity or obliged by necessity.“

—  Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus, libro De re militari

De Re Militari (also Epitoma Rei Militaris), Book III, "Dispositions for Action"
Original: (la) Boni duces publico certamine numquam nisi ex occasione aut nimia necessitate confligunt.
Contexto: Punishment, and fear thereof, are necessary to keep soldiers in order in quarters; but in the field they are more influenced by hope and rewards. Good officers never engage in general actions unless induced by opportunity or obliged by necessity. (General Maxims)

„It is the nature of war that what is beneficial to you is detrimental to the enemy and what is of service to him always hurts you.“

—  Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus, libro De re militari

De Re Militari (also Epitoma Rei Militaris), Book III, "Dispositions for Action"
Original: (la) In omnibus proeliis expeditionis condicio talis est, ut quod tibi prodest aduersarium noceat, quod illum adiuuat tibi semper officiat.
Contexto: It is the nature of war that what is beneficial to you is detrimental to the enemy and what is of service to him always hurts you. It is therefore a maxim never to do, or to omit doing, anything as a consequence of his actions, but to consult invariably your own interest only. And you depart from this interest whenever you imitate such measures as he pursues for his benefit. For the same reason, it would be wrong for him to follow such steps as you take for your advantage. (General Maxims)

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„We find that the Romans owed the conquest of the world to no other cause than continual military training, exact observance of discipline in their camps and unwearied cultivation of the other arts of war.“

—  Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus, libro De re militari

De Re Militari (also Epitoma Rei Militaris), Book I, "The Selection and Training of New Levies"
Original: (la) Nulla enim alia re uidemus populum Romanum orbem subegisse terrarum nisi armorum exercitio, disciplina castrorum usuque militiae.
Contexto: Victory in war does not depend entirely upon numbers or mere courage; only skill and discipline will insure it. We find that the Romans owed the conquest of the world to no other cause than continual military training, exact observance of discipline in their camps and unwearied cultivation of the other arts of war. Without these, what chance would the inconsiderable numbers of the Roman armies have had against the multitudes of the Gauls? Or with what success would their small size have been opposed to the prodigious stature of the Germans? The Spaniards surpassed us not only in numbers, but in physical strength. We were always inferior to the Africans in wealth and unequal to them in deception and stratagem. And the Greeks, indisputably, were far superior to us in skill in arts and all kinds of knowledge. (Book 1)

„Troops are not to be led to battle unless confident of success.“

—  Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus, libro De re militari

De Re Militari (also Epitoma Rei Militaris), Book III, "Dispositions for Action"
Original: (la) Numquam ad certamen publicum produxeris militem, nisi cum eum uideris sperare uictoriam.
Contexto: An army is strengthened by labor and enervated by idleness. Troops are not to be led to battle unless confident of success. (General Maxims)

„A handful of men, inured to war, proceed to certain victory, while on the contrary numerous armies of raw and undisciplined troops are but multitudes of men dragged to slaughter.“

—  Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus, libro De re militari

Book 1
De Re Militari (also Epitoma Rei Militaris), Book I, "The Selection and Training of New Levies"
Original: (la) Etenim in certamine bellorum exercitata paucitas ad uictoriam promptior est, rudis et indocta multitudo exposita semper ad caedem.

„Those designs are best which the enemy are entirely ignorant of till the moment of execution.“

—  Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus, libro De re militari

De Re Militari (also Epitoma Rei Militaris), Book III, "Dispositions for Action"
Original: (la) Nulla consilia meliora sunt nisi illa, quae ignorauerit aduersarius, antequam facias.
Contexto: It is much better to overcome the enemy by famine, surprise or terror than by general actions, for in the latter instance fortune has often a greater share than valour. Those designs are best which the enemy are entirely ignorant of till the moment of execution. Opportunity in war is often more to be depended on than courage. (General Maxims)

„Consult with many on proper measures to be taken, but communicate the plans you intend to put in execution to few, and those only of the most assured fidelity; or rather trust no one but yourself.“

—  Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus, libro De re militari

De Re Militari (also Epitoma Rei Militaris), Book III, "Dispositions for Action"
Original: (la) Quid fieri debeat, tractato cum multis, quid uero facturus sis, cum paucissimis ac fidelissimis uel potius ipse tecum.
Contexto: On finding the enemy has notice of your designs, you must immediately alter your plan of operations. Consult with many on proper measures to be taken, but communicate the plans you intend to put in execution to few, and those only of the most assured fidelity; or rather trust no one but yourself. (General Maxims)

„An army unsupplied with grain and other necessary provisions will be vanquished without striking a blow.“

—  Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus, libro De re militari

General Maxims
De Re Militari (also Epitoma Rei Militaris), Book III, "Dispositions for Action"
Original: (la) Qui frumentum necessariaque non praeparat, uincitur sine ferro.

„He, therefore, who desires peace, should prepare for war. He who aspires to victory, should spare no pains to form his soldiers. And he who hopes for success, should fight on principle, not chance. (Book 3, Foreword)“

—  Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus, libro De re militari

De Re Militari (also Epitoma Rei Militaris), Book III, "Dispositions for Action"
Original: (la) Igitur qui desiderat pacem, praeparet bellum; qui uictoriam cupit, milites inbuat diligenter; qui secundos optat euentus, dimicet arte, non casu.
Variante: Si vis pacem para bellum. ("If you want peace, prepare for war.")

„Paucos uiros fortes natura procreat; bona institutione plures reddit industria.“

—  Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus, libro De re militari

Few men are born brave; many become so through care and force of discipline. (General Maxims)
De Re Militari (also Epitoma Rei Militaris), Book III, "Dispositions for Action"

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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