Frases de Arquíloco

Arquíloco Foto
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Arquíloco

Fecha de nacimiento: 680 a.C.
Fecha de muerte: 645 a.C.

Arquíloco [1]​ fue un poeta lírico griego arcaico originario de la isla de Paros.

Fue hijo de un noble llamado Telesicles y de una esclava llamada Enipo. Poeta y mercenario, sus escritos nos han llegado de forma fragmentada, y no existe consenso respecto a las fechas exactas en las que vivió y la autoría de algunas de las obras que se le atribuyen. Su vida se desarrolla a lo largo de la primera mitad del siglo VII a. C. Nació en Paros, una pequeña isla jonia del mar Egeo, famosa por su mármol, y donde el culto a Deméter, relacionado con la poesía yámbica, era muy importante. Arquíloco, además de cantar al dios Dioniso, está ligado a la introducción de su culto en su isla. Participó en la colonización de Tasos, en busca de territorio agrícola, una localización muy próxima a las minas auríferas del litoral de Tracia.

Arquíloco se nos presenta como poeta soldado, alguien que vivía de la guerra mientras cultivaba la poesía.

Soy un servidor del soberano Enialio

conocedor del amable don de las Musas.

De mi lanza depende el pan que como, de mi lanza

el vino de Ismaro. Apoyado en mi lanza bebo.

Pasó su vida entre las luchas políticas y las rivalidades de Paros. Según Critias por ese motivo se arruinó económicamente, contrajo numerosas enemistades, y empobrecido marchó a Tasos. Terminó sus días durante la defensa de Paros en la guerra contra Naxos, isla cercana.

Tras su muerte disfrutó en Paros de gran popularidad y se erigió en su honor un monumento funerario en el que se ha encontrado una larga inscripción perteneciente al siglo IV a. C. en la que, a modo de cuento popular, se explica la iniciación del poeta en los ritos dionisiacos, y la profecía que presenció su padre anunciando la posterior fama de su hijo.

Se hizo famoso en la Antigüedad y pasó a la posteridad como personaje polémico a través de Plutarco. Sus obras fueron igualmente polémicas, tanto por sus ataques virulentos contra variados personajes y su habilidad para crearse enemistades, como por contradecir con algunos de sus versos los valores bélicos de la época. Nietzsche lo referencia como el artista "dionisíaco" lírico de entre los poetas de la antigüedad, contrapuesto a Homero, el artista "apolíneo" épico. Nietzsche reivindica a Arquíloco quien, erróneamente, ha sido llamado en la Modernidad como "artista subjetivo", es decir, "mal artista"; pero, a quien la división entre "lo objetivo" y "lo subjetivo" resulta "improcedente en estética"[2]​ .

Un sayo ostenta hoy el brillante escudo que abandoné a pesar mío junto a un florecido arbusto.

Pero salvé la vida. ¿Qué me interesa ese escudo?

Peor para él. Uno mejor me consigo.[3]​

Prometido con Neobula, el padre de aquélla, Licambes, otorgó a su hija a alguien que suponía un mejor partido, a lo que Arquíloco respondió con composiciones ofensivas que se recogen en el llamado Papiro de Colonia, en el que acusaba a Neobula de ser una mujer sin moral y relataba con detalles un encuentro sexual con su hermana menor. Los versos habrían resultado tan hirientes que, según la leyenda, llevaron al suicidio a Licambes y a sus hijas.

Frases Arquíloco

„I have a high art: I hurt with cruelty those who wound me.“

—  Archilochus

As quoted in Studies in Latin American Popular Culture, Vol. 20 (2001), p. 184
As quoted in Quotations for Martial Artists : Hundreds of Inspirational Quotes to Motivate and Enlighten the Modern Warrior (2003) edited by John D. Moore
Fragments
Variante: I have a high art; I hurt with cruelty those who would damage me.

„The fox knows many things, but the hedgehog knows one big thing.“

—  Archilochus

As quoted in The Hedgehog and the Fox (1953) by Isaiah Berlin
Variant translations:
The fox knows many things; the hedgehog one great thing.
The fox knows many tricks; the hedgehog one good one.
The fox knows many tricks; and the hedgehog only one; but that is the best one of all.
Fragments
Original: (el) πόλλ' οἶδ' ἀλώπηξ, ἐχῖνος δ'ἓν μέγα

„Jealousy has no power over me,
Nor do I envy a god his work,
And I do not burn to rule.
Such things have no
Fascination for my eyes.“

—  Archilochus

Fragments
Variante: The affairs of gold-laden Gyges do not interest me
zealousy of the gods has never seized me nor anger
at their deeds. But I have no love for great tyranny
for its deeds are very far from my eyes.
Contexto: These golden matters
Of Gyges and his treasuries
Are no concern of mine.
Jealousy has no power over me,
Nor do I envy a god his work,
And I do not burn to rule.
Such things have no
Fascination for my eyes.

„Keep some measure in the joy you take in luck, and the degree you
give way to sorrow.“

—  Archilochus

Fragment 67, as translated by R. Lattimore http://www.rhapsodes.fll.vt.edu/arkhilokhos67.htm
Variant translations:
Soul, my soul, don't let them break you,
all these troubles. Never yield:
though their force is overwhelming,
up! attack them shield to shield...
"Archilochos: To His Soul" : A fragment http://web.archive.org/20030629194753/geocities.com/joncpoetics/translations/Archsoul.htm as translated from the Greek by Jon Corelis http://web.archive.org/20030805055937/www.geocities.com/joncpoetics/
Take the joy and bear the sorrow,
looking past your hopes and fears:
learn to recognize the measured
dance that orders all our years.
"Archilochos: To His Soul" : A fragment, as translated from the Greek by Jon Corelis
Fragments
Original: (el) θυμέ, θύμ᾽ ἀμηχάνοισι κήδεσιν κυκώμενε,
ἄνα δέ, δυσμενέων δ᾽ ἀλέξευ προσβαλὼν ἐναντίον
στέρνον, ἐν δοκοῖσιν ἐχθρῶν πλησίον κατασταθείς
ἀσφαλέως· καὶ μήτε νικῶν ἀμφαδὴν ἀγάλλεο
μηδὲ νικηθεὶς ἐν οἴκωι καταπεσὼν ὀδύρεο.
ἀλλὰ χαρτοῖσίν τε χαῖρε καὶ κακοῖσιν ἀσχάλα
μὴ λίην· γίνωσκε δ᾽ οἷος ῥυσμὸς ἀνθρώπους ἔχει.
Contexto: Heart, my heart, so battered with misfortune far beyond your strength,
up, and face the men who hate us. Bare your chest to the assault
of the enemy, and fight them off. Stand fast among the beamlike spears.
Give no ground; and if you beat them, do not brag in open show,
nor, if they beat you, run home and lie down on your bed and cry.
Keep some measure in the joy you take in luck, and the degree you
give way to sorrow. All our life is up-and-down like this.

„Heart, my heart, so battered with misfortune far beyond your strength,
up, and face the men who hate us.“

—  Archilochus

Fragment 67, as translated by R. Lattimore http://www.rhapsodes.fll.vt.edu/arkhilokhos67.htm
Variant translations:
Soul, my soul, don't let them break you,
all these troubles. Never yield:
though their force is overwhelming,
up! attack them shield to shield...
"Archilochos: To His Soul" : A fragment http://web.archive.org/20030629194753/geocities.com/joncpoetics/translations/Archsoul.htm as translated from the Greek by Jon Corelis http://web.archive.org/20030805055937/www.geocities.com/joncpoetics/
Take the joy and bear the sorrow,
looking past your hopes and fears:
learn to recognize the measured
dance that orders all our years.
"Archilochos: To His Soul" : A fragment, as translated from the Greek by Jon Corelis
Fragments
Original: (el) θυμέ, θύμ᾽ ἀμηχάνοισι κήδεσιν κυκώμενε,
ἄνα δέ, δυσμενέων δ᾽ ἀλέξευ προσβαλὼν ἐναντίον
στέρνον, ἐν δοκοῖσιν ἐχθρῶν πλησίον κατασταθείς
ἀσφαλέως· καὶ μήτε νικῶν ἀμφαδὴν ἀγάλλεο
μηδὲ νικηθεὶς ἐν οἴκωι καταπεσὼν ὀδύρεο.
ἀλλὰ χαρτοῖσίν τε χαῖρε καὶ κακοῖσιν ἀσχάλα
μὴ λίην· γίνωσκε δ᾽ οἷος ῥυσμὸς ἀνθρώπους ἔχει.
Contexto: Heart, my heart, so battered with misfortune far beyond your strength,
up, and face the men who hate us. Bare your chest to the assault
of the enemy, and fight them off. Stand fast among the beamlike spears.
Give no ground; and if you beat them, do not brag in open show,
nor, if they beat you, run home and lie down on your bed and cry.
Keep some measure in the joy you take in luck, and the degree you
give way to sorrow. All our life is up-and-down like this.

„Nothing can be surprising any more or impossible or miraculous, now that Zeus, father of the Olympians has made night out of noonday, hiding the bright sunlight, and . . . fear has come upon mankind. After this, men can believe anything, expect anything.“

—  Archilochus

Fragments
Variante: Zeus, the father of the Olympic Gods, turned mid-day into night, hiding the light of the dazzling Sun; and sore fear came upon men.
Contexto: Nothing can be surprising any more or impossible or miraculous, now that Zeus, father of the Olympians has made night out of noonday, hiding the bright sunlight, and... fear has come upon mankind. After this, men can believe anything, expect anything. Don't any of you be surprised in future if land beasts change places with dolphins and go to live in their salty pastures, and get to like the sounding waves of the sea more than the land, while the dolphins prefer the mountains.

„Be bold! That's one way
Of getting through life.“

—  Archilochus

Be bold! That's one way
Contexto: Be bold! That's one way
Of getting through life.
So I turn upon her
And point out that,
Faced with the wickedness
Of things, she does not shiver.

„Some Saian mountaineer
Struts today with my shield.
I threw it down by a bush and ran
When the fighting got hot.
Life seemed somehow more precious.
It was a beautiful shield.
I know where I can buy another
Exactly like it, just as round.“

—  Archilochus

Fragments
Variante: A Saian boasts about the shield which beside a bush
though good armour I unwillingly left behind.
I saved myself, so what do I care about the shield?
To hell with it! I'll get one soon just as good.
Variante: I don't give a damn if some Thracian ape strut
Proud of that first-rate shield the bushes got.
Leaving it was hell, but in a tricky spot
I kept my hide intact. Good shields can be bought. (as translated by Stuart Silverman)
Variante: Let who will boast their courage in the field,
I find but little safety from my shield.
Nature's, not honour's, law we must obey:
This made me cast my useless shield away,
And by a prudent flight and cunning save
A life, which valour could not, from the grave.
A better buckler I can soon regain;
But who can get another life again?

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„Oh Zeus, father Zeus, Yours is the Kingdom of Heaven, and you watch men's deeds, the crafty and the right, and You are who cares for beasts' transgression and justice.“

—  Archilochus

Fragment 177
Fragments
Original: (el) ὦ Ζεῦ͵ πάτερ Ζεῦ͵ σὸν μὲν οὐρανοῦ κράτος͵ σὺ δ΄ ἔργ΄ ἐπ΄ ἀνθρώπων ὁρᾶις λεωργὰ καὶ θεμιστά͵ σοὶ δὲ θηρίων ὕβρις τε καὶ δίκη μέλει.

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